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EXTERNAL AND SUPERVISORY SATELLITES

PHOTOGRAPHIC AND RADAR CREATIVE EXHIBITION SATELLITES - NIMA - RAND - CORONA KH-1, 2-KH, KH-3, 4-KH - ARGON KH-5 - Lanyard KH-6 - GAMBIT KH-7, KH-8 - HEXAGONBIG BIRD KH-9, KH-9B - Kennan, CRYSTAL KH-11 - IMPROVED CRYSTAL, IKON KH-12 - INDIGO, LACROSSE, VEGA, ONIX - VOSTOK - ZENIT Cosmos-12 - Cosmos-22 - Cosmos-246 - Cosmos-463 - Cosmos-464 - Cosmos-596 - Cosmos-597 - Cosmos-598 - Cosmos-599 - Cosmos-600 - Cosmos-602 - Cosmos-603 - AMBER-2K PHOENIX - JANTAR-4K1 OKTANT - AMBER-4K2 COBALT - AMBER-4KS1 terilen - AMBER-4KS2 MONSTER - ARKON-1 Kosmos-2344 - ORLEC-1 DON - ORLEC-2 JENISEJ Kosmos-2290 Kosmos-2372 - Kosmos 2377 - OTHER NATIONAL, INTERNATIONAL AND COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS

NIMA
KH-1 5 mission
KH-2 3 mission
KH-3 9 mission
KH-4 Agena D
KH-4 12 mission
KH-4 4 mission
KH-4 Return capsule
C-119
Return capsule
Return capsule
Return capsule
KH-4B camera
KH-5 2 mission
KH-5 12 mission
KH-6 3 mission
KH-7 2 mission
KH-7 7 mission
KH-8 48 mission
KH-10
KH-10
KH-11 Titan 3D
KH-11 Titan 34D
KH-12 Titanium 403A
KH-13 Titan 403B
Yantar-2
Yantar-2
Yantar-2
Yantar-2K
Yantar - one of the earlier concepts
JANTAR-4K2 KOBALT capsule
kindling wood
kindling wood
Proton
Ariane 5

IZVIDNIČKI I NADZORNI SATELITI

PHOTOGRAPHIC AND RADAR CREATIVE EXHIBITION SATELLITES

Satellites for visual reconnaissance and surveillance, the general public known as "spy satellites" are used to obtain information on the type of defense and other activities of potential opponents, as well as allies. Theoretically, we can distinguish reconnaissance of surveillance satellites. In principle, the surveillance satellites differ from reconnaissance by the fact that the first (control, in British terminology called satellites for "quick look", "quick-look") intended for continuous or periodic control of wider areas, and therefore have a wider view field, lower resolution, and recordings, which can be a television, photographic or radar, sent in real time earth observation points over the radio link. If you would be using satellites for surveillance revealed a potentially interesting activity or when they need precise information over the target area directed to reconnaissance satellites or satellites for "a closer look" (eng. "Close-look"), that with its higher photographic equipment with better resolution recorded a goal and then the movie in a special capsule returned to Earth for analysis and interpretation.

The beginnings of satellite reconnaissance and surveillance technical development is not allowed so many technical diversity, so the reconnaissance and surveillance satellites footage back to Earth on films in capsules, the only difference was the surface of the photographed area, the type of camera used and resolution photos. It was not until the development of techniques in the seventies enabled quality electro-optical monitoring devices and digital photo transfer by radio connections, they came into use satellites (US KH-11 kennan / crystal), which allowed immediate transfer of images from the satellite to the ground control station, allegedly using the relay communications satellite. Sensor turret devices to a new generation of satellites were powerful enough to have enabled to control wide areas and directed a detailed reconnaissance of individual goals, so that a satellite could integrate both functions. Russia to some extent still used unfolded reconnaissance and surveillance satellites.

Today on the Internet (http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov), available to everyone, can find thousands of photos made by these, once super-secret satellites. American National Picture and Imaging Agency (National Imagery and Mapping Agency or shorter NIMA) surprised and respected researchers with his move. From the bunker it was captured in the light of 50000 images shot during spy missions of the sixties, seventies and eighties of the last century with two US spy satellites. While historians hope to discover some of the Cold War secretes, geologists and environmental protectors will use them to track changes in the Earth and assess the state of global warming. Photos made above China can illuminate the extent to which China and the Soviet Union cooperated during the Vietnam War. There are several ways scientists can come up with the important information contained in the old pictures. One of them is detecting changes in the landscape. So, for example, examining the image of Siberia from 1963. year can show which geographic widths stretched over frozen tundra. Observing its possible retraction on photos of a recent date may indicate a meltdown. Scientists have already used these photos to study the behavior of the Antarctic ice cover.

NO supports the US government in an attempt to get a larger number of historical information, that have long been available only in intelligence, and deliver confidence and make available to everyone. The goal of this endeavor is to promote open management mode of the US government, justifying investment of taxpayers in national security, as well as providing access to scientists this useful and unique source of information. This is not the first time that the confidential photographs taken from space given for the review to the American public. former President Bill Clinton and vice President Al Gore launched the 1991. The initiative, which is four years later resulted in the "release" the first batch of about 860000 images taken from satellites of the so-called. CORONA program. Before this, no photo with a spy satellite was not available to the public. Moreover, the American public knew nothing about the secret activities of satellite surveillance until 1978. the President Jim Carter has not revealed that the United States in armaments control relies on it. The satellite spy program has played a significant role in creating US foreign policy towards countries such as the former Soviet Union and China. Today's administration resumes Clinton's initiative regarding the images, despite the ongoing terrorism war.

Since the unexpected Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor 1941. the US government calls for a way to reorganize the country's intelligence system. Officials from the Ministry of War and the Office for Scientific Research and Development agreed that the establishment of a research center would help to gather intelligence more efficiently, because such an organization would combine scientific methods of research and military strategy. Formed in December 1945. year project RAND (made up of scientists, engineers, mathematicians and psychologists) provided advisory services to the government in considering the activities of a potential enemy, and served to prepare reports on a test orbital aircraft. The study was completed May 1946. He proposed a four-stage 106 tons of 480 tons, which would use a useful 277 mileage trail in the 1951 mile track. The report did not mention the inadequacy of the basic idea; the technical side was on a healthy foot. If it was approved, it could start working immediately on it, and the first launch would be XNUMX. years. This did not happen only because politicians and a few theoretical scientists claimed that it was not in the interest of US defense policy, not realizing that the day when such programs would be a fundamental part of military needs would soon come. The controversy lasts for two years, and aviation experts spend a lot of strength trying to convince secularists in every way to justify the project. At the same time, naval aviation can not be stopped and persistently working on its own test rocket (High Altitude Test Vehicle - HATV). A modest mass of 46 tons, HATV would have powered nine separate rocket motors up to the 241 km over the Earth's surface. Any less money than 1948. coming from Washington prevents planes from drawing boards into metal. Concerned by spending public money on such unrealistic projects, the press is speculating on the Air Force. The aviation is re-addressed to RAND, which is 1949. confirms the vital role of satellite defense in the United States. Their experts also stated that monitoring the potential enemies from the universe is the only reasonable way to perform these tasks. The claims were very convincing, but with the great responsibility for the development of nuclear weapons, the US Defense Ministry did not have the strength to embark on another major technological venture. In addition, given the current state of rocket technology, which only has one smaller model, Redstone, The satellite espionage seems, at that time, distant future.

During the period of 1955-1958. The Americans have spent mission spy plane U-2 above the territory of the Soviet Union to assess the military capabilities of the country. RAND has suggested a different type of research - artificial satellites that will capture photographs of the universe. Unsurpassed by the success of launching the Russian artificial satellite Sputnjika, in October, 1957. the President Eisenhower authorized the CIA to secretly develop a spy satellite that would protect US interests. In the first five or six years of civilian and military space programs, there is a lot to learn about the space around the Earth. Prior to that time, scientists assumed that the atmosphere was far beyond the surface as they showed changes in satellite paths. Any air molecule that strikes in it does not slow it down. Careful study of such changes provided valuable information on the real composition of the outer layers of our planet's airspace. While track planers once thought conservatively that intelligence satellites would never be able to fly trails lower than 300 km, exacerbating predictions about the technical quality of photographs in the universe, it proved to be no difficulty or when they lowered them to less than half that height due to the shooting of some details. Thanks to the technological advancement in the fields of radar systems, computers and rocket motors, a satellite observation system was soon created. By the time the second generation intelligence satellites are on the scene, reports by the first American astronauts indicate visibility that exceeded the highest expectations of the experts responsible for the calculation of the discretion.

During 1966. and 1967. in the United States, it is about a new type of intelligence spacecraft that would be set up on perfected rockets. The third generation of satellites to oversee major territories is founded on Agen D i Thor with increased rocket motors. In orbit, on average, stayed about three weeks. Test launch was carried out 9. August 1966, but the model has completely replaced the previous only in May next year. It was indeed a new satellite because it is used specially designed infrared sensors for night vision, and the data is much faster would reach the earth station. For this he used a new, 1,5 m wide antenna coupled to the time of launch, capable of much faster communication with Earth. The system was better because it required fewer flights to achieve the same goal. By improving the technology that number and so constantly declined. At the beginning, 1963, launched them 17, 1964. and 1965. there were 14 and 1966. all 9. With the introduction of models for day and night surveillance year 1967. the number of satellites it was also 9 to next year dropped to 8. 1969. there were only 6, 1970. all 4, 1971. Another less and 1972, when they flew last of this generation, launched them only two.

And satellites to look closely in the meantime changed characteristics. The second generation, introduced 1963, used rocket Atlas-Agena D. Changing this system arrives July 1966. with a much stronger bracket Titanium 3B Agena-D. New satellites use multispectral cameras to capture at several wavelengths of visible light. By that time, more and more the use of intelligence satellites has caused a whole set of curiosity to hide from curious eyes. Experts hope that hidden objects will be found in some parts of the spectrum. A special camera is made in the company's facilities ItekAnd with him was carrying large amounts of film to the satellite as long as possible remained in the path.

This third-generation scout satellite in the journey had a mass of about 3 tones, and he flew somewhat more elliptical than his predecessors. Turning low over the upper parts of the atmosphere, it was often used by Agen's engine to lift to safer heights. Without that possibility, the aircraft would soon reach the thicker layers and burn. In the period between 1967. and 1972. when large-scale satellite sighting satellites (later replaced with a completely new surveillance technology), the average lifespan of a glance-looking aircraft is more than doubled - less than two weeks for a period of around 30 days. This means decreasing the launch frequency, so they are so 1967. launched ten, 1968. eight, 1969. six, 1970. five, 1971. four and 1972. five. The basic system has continued to improve throughout the decade of its use. To 1976. their useful life has doubled again, which means they have been sending data almost two months. However, the satellites for large space exploration have experienced the greatest changes. During 1972. Existing Types Replaces New, Fourth Generation, Launched With Amazingly Modified and Enhanced Rockets Thor-Agena D.

CORONA, GAMBIT, HEXAGON, CRYSTAL AND LACROSSE

In the period of 1959. to 1972. year, under the guise of scientific satellite program Discoverer (discoverer) The US has developed a photographic survey satellite program CROWN, and the 145 CORONA satellite was launched to detect the important military secrets of the Soviet Union and others by US potentially hostile, foreign countries. In one day, CORONA gave more photos of the Soviet Union than the entire U-2 spy program. American leaders have used satellite-based data to form specific strategic initiatives. The satellites have proved that the Russians at that time did not have hundreds of ballistic missiles available, as the public was scared, but rather that the number between the 25 and the 50 pieces was before. However, this evidence has been hidden for years. All in all, the CORONA program cost the Americans about $ 850 million.

satellites CROWN (KH-1, KH-2, KH-3, KH-4, KH-4, KH-4B), As well as ARGON (KH-5), And LANYARD (KH-6) Were used primarily to assess the state of production of strategic bombers and ballistic missiles in the Soviet Union, as well as their engagement. Satellites are used for film containers that are discharged to Earth in capsules. Two small parachute that opened in the fall capsules were used for its slowdown. The capsules were falling into the ocean, with whose surface collected. Since shortly and Soviet submarines began to "go fishing" capsules, changed the technique of their collection. The capsules caught (sometimes with a lot of trouble) during the fall special plane Air Force C-119 and returned them to Earth, where the film was further processed by CIA technicians. Black and white films were used, apart from small infrared and color film samples, worn in some missions for experimental purposes. The first launch of the CORONA program was released by US Air Force as a satellite launch in the series DISCOVERY.

Discoverer program is described as an attempt to develop satellite technology, and in fact this was a mask for CORONA photographic mission. However, the Discovery program had a practical side. It was used to perform test flights without taking photos for verification technology and finding solutions to specific technical problems that occurred in the CORONA series. Derived are 2 years for testing sensors for satellite-based early warning MIDAS. After the 38 mission, the DISCOVERER program was canceled and the secret of all the missions of photographic prizes and similar test missions was veiled.

The camera J-1
Camera CORONA
The camera J-3
camera MURAL

Unit KH (Keyhole or keyhole) was used for all satellites that participated in scouting missions. The number that followed behind the tag was determined by the type of camera used on the satellite. This marking system has entered 1962. year with the fourth camera system and the predecessors are labeled as KH-1, KH-2, the KH-3. The little available information has about different satellite designs, while some details about different camera systems still exist.

satellite Name
KH-1 CORONA
KH-2 CORONA
KH-3 CORONA
KH-4 CORONA
KH-4 CORONA
KH-4B CORONA
orbit height
192-817 km
252-704 km
217-232 km
211-415 km
180 km
150 km
Period use series
27. June 1959 to 13. September 1960
26. October 1960 to 23. October 1961
30. August 1961 to 13. January 1962
27. February 1962 24 to. ožujak1963
24. August 1963 to 22. September 1969
15. September 1967 to 25. May 1972
The life span of satellites
1 day
2 to 3 days
1 to 4 days
6 to 7 days
4 to 15 days
19 days
Missions
total / successful
10 / 1
10 / 3
6 / 5
26 / 20
52 / 49
17 / 16
Camera type
Mono panorama type C
Mono panoramic type C '
Mono panoramic type C '' '
Mono panorama type 2-J
Stereo panoramic type 2-J1
Stereo panoramic type 2-J3
Total number of cameras
1
1
1
1
2
2
the ability to increase
less than 10x
less than 10x
less than 10x
less than 10x
16x
16x
Focal length of the lens
61 cm
F / 5.0 Tessar
61 cm
F / 5.0 Tessar
61 cm
F / 3.5 Petzval
61 cm
F / 3.5 Petzval
61 cm
F / 3.5 Petzval
61 cm
F / 3.5 Petzval
recording Format
5,5 x 75,7 cm
5,5 x 75,7 cm
5,5 x 75,7 cm
5,5 x 75,7 cm
5,5 x 75,7 cm
5,5 x 75,7 cm
Size of recorded surface
15,3x209 to 42x579 km
15,3x209 to 42x579 km
15,3x209 to 42x579 km
15,3x209 to 42x579 km
17x232 km
13,8x188 km
Resolution of the recorded surface
7,6 m
7,6 m
7,6 m
7,6 m
2,7 m
1,8 m
Film width
70 mm
70 mm
70 mm
70 mm
70 mm
70 mm
Length film / recording frame
1081 m / 1432
5470 m / 7246
7521 m / 9918
72938 m / 101743
394114 m / 517688
154219 m + a little test film in color / 188526
Movie resolution
50-100 line / mm
50-100 line / mm
50-100 line / mm
50-100 line / mm
120 line / mm
160 line / mm
Contrast of the movie
1: 275000 to 1: 760000
1: 275000 to 1: 760000
1: 275000 to 1: 760000
1:300000
1:305000
1:247500
Satellite mass
779 kg
1146 kg
1250 kg
1200 kg
2000 kg
2000 kg
A rocket launcher
Thor Agena A
Thor Agena B
Thor Agena B
Thor Agena B or D
TA Thor Agena D
LT Thor Agena D
The height / diameter satellite

cca 6 m
cca 1,5 m

cca 7 m
cca 1,5 m
cca 7 m
cca 1,5 m
cca 10 m
cca 1,5 m
cca 10 m
cca 1,5 m
cca 10 m
cca 1,5 m
Rocket weight - start / useful load
53130 / 800 kg
56507 / 1200 kg
56507 / 1200 kg
68040 / 1200 kg
67819 / 1500 kg
88731 / 2000 kg
Height / diameter of the missile
28,0 / 2,4 m
31,0 / 2,4 m
31,0 / 2,4 m
31,0 / 2,4 m
31,0 / 2,4 m
34,0 / 2,4 m

Early systems (KH-1, KH-2, KH-3 i KH-6) wore one panorama camera while they were more advanced (KH-4, KH-4, the KH-4B) wore two panoramic cameras centered at an angle of 30 degrees. Camera KH-6 was programmed to move and covers the same zone twice during photographic crossings, which is achieved by a stereo operation.

Camera ARGON

Satellite programs inherited Corona satellites programs KH-5 ARGON, KH-6 LANYARD, KH-7 i KH-8 GAMBIT, KH-9 i KH-9B HEXAGON (also called "big bird"), all of which maintained the way to capture images on Earth using film capsules, with KH-7 and KH-8 satellites having two capsules, and KH-9 four. A larger number of capsules meant that the satellite could be more orbiting time and intervals on the Earth to send capsules with the footage.Of course, the photographic equipment on the satellites also improved, which meant a better resolution (resolution means how large objects can easily be distinguished from the footage, eg satellites with resolution 1 meter differ from objects of magnitude other objects but do not see enough detail to recognize these objects - identify possible objects that are 2 to 3 times higher.) Resolution from 2 to 3 meters at KH-4 improved on 15 to 60 cm at KH-9.

LANYARD Room

Satellite surveillance KH-7 GAMBIT has been visiting the Earth since July 1963. by June 1967. and made Kodak's picture camera sufficiently detailed to see objects on the land width of 0,5 to 1,5 meters. KH-7 became the first intelligent satellite of high resolution. The GAMBIT started after the fall Gary Powers, in May, 1960. years. He had to replace U-2 (a spy plane flying at high altitudes). The 34 to 38 successful missions of this satellite were made. According to data provided by NIMA, key targets of KH-7 were complexes of intercontinental ballistic missiles, radar systems, and various hot spots around the planet. KH-7 is a company product General ElectricAnd in orbit was set up by Lockheedyour missiles. The entire program was managed by a component of the National Scout Office (National Reconnaissance Office or shorter NRA) from US Air Force.

Second satellite, KH-9 HEXAGON, which flies between 1973. and 1980. year, was mainly for mapping, with an average resolution of 4 to 9 meters. Maps obtained based on the 12 missions of KH-9 satellites have been for decades in official government charts. The public did not know how to use the fruits of these missions. Some images from the 1963 period. to 1980. were not made available because they are still considered very sensitive from the point of view of national security.

In the mid-1960s, a lot of thought was being devoted to the development of new types of scouting spacecraft, so there were plans for the far future for the third generation. They were thinking about large orbital stations with the crew, launching the largest missile in the US military arsenal. That was it Titan 3C, a rack with two rocket engines solid fuel fitted for the first stage, or slightly modified intercontinental projectile Titan 2. By extending the extra engines, converting them to 3M version, a large Titan in the Earth's path could take the 12 m 3 m diameter laboratory, 9 ton weight. At the top there would be a capsule for the crew taken from Gemini NASA program, so that the two astronauts could stay in orbit for four weeks.

The laboratory was supposed to be filled with the atmosphere of oxygen and helium. The company was in charge of construction and construction McDonnell Douglas. The orbital laboratory manned, (Manned Orbital Laboratory, MOL), Was a major project that is looking for multi-year commitment of many manufacturers of aerospace equipment. It was officially launched 25. August 1965, at a time when the president of the United States was Lyndon Johnson. Only eight months before that, the missile was canceled Dyna-Soar Air Force, as the permanent space station launched a conventional rocket makes it more convenient. Plans for MOL included test flights with models laboratory, the first of which successfully completed 3. November 1966. But less disability changing schedule of the project, so that the original prediction of takeoff during 1968. crumble.

More 1967. it was known that the lab would not go off before the beginning of the next decade, but in addition, the aviation will select the 16 crew candidate. In time, they reinforce the criticisms of those who doubt the wisdom of placing military stations in the Earth's path, and this also affects the further development of the event. Thought about such space objects stems from the fantastic success NASA had during their flights when astronauts watched the planet for scientific purposes. Only one orbital station equipped with appropriate equipment, said air force experts, would solve many intelligence issues. But at that time, NASA seeks to persuade Congress to develop an orbital laboratory with crew on the basis of equipment left behind Apollo program. This will be done later under the name Skylab, the laboratory of the launched 1973. who has been hosting astronauts on three occasions for a period of one, two, and three months. During the battle at the NASA Congress, the Air Force is out of the game. At the time when Richard Nixon 1969. finally succeeded in running for the position of the president of the United States of America, the MOL project was ahead of the ignorant end. Reducing the budget has already slowed down research and trials, but the analysis of the state of affairs over the next few months revealed his Achilles heel that made it possible to cancel it. It would be stupid, the representatives of the new administration said, at the same time work on two separate orbital station projects, one NASA and one Pentagon. Director of MOL Program, General Bernard A. Schriever, is fiercely struggling to continue his project, but it was a pre-lost battle against the first and subsequent descents on the moon that no one wanted to give up.

Early June 1969. The Pentagon suddenly announces the completion of the MOL project and terminates all research related to it. The program was all around the veil of secrecy, so there was always little to know about it. But it was not lost. For some time it's already secret Project 612, Replacement for MOL. Two years before the cancellation of its military orbital station manned, Aviation notifies manufacturers of Titan on the need for model 3D. That meant three-stage processing Titan 3C in a two-stage missile with the ability to set up loads of 13 tons in low orbit; 3C version was intended for the carrying of satellites in geostationary orbit 36 thousand kilometers above the Earth. The project 612 is included all the most important features of MOL laboratories, building them in the most ambitious program based carrier Agena. It was a big, 15-meter satellite system with two photographic cameras. First among them, which was built by Perkin-Elmer, he had the ability to very great discernment and served to capture the smallest details of objects on the surface of the planet. Other, Eastman Kodakov, was intended for photographing larger areas. The satellite was also equipped with other scouting equipment, such as a side-by-side radar. The large 6 diameter antenna had its launch time; she disengaged when she reached the desired trajectory. In addition, Satelit wore six capsules similar to Discoverer, intended for occasional movies to return to Earth.

One year before the cancellation of MOL cells, the aircraft gets a new name: The project 467, which it has retained to date. Detection of program details clarifies abrupt cancellation of the orbital station with the crew. The 467 project is taking much more secretive than the previous one. Military experts hoped that the first satellite of this generation would go off again during 1970, but camera difficulties and some detector systems would delay the plan for a year. Previous generation on a carrier basis Thor-Agena D it is already obsolete, and intelligence services are speeding up the development of new systems. KH-9 HEXAGONUnofficially named Great bird (Big Bird), 467 is experiencing the first launch of 15. June 1971. Early spring morning Titan 3D he got up from the Vandenberg base launching tower and slowly rose to the sky. Big Bird is really a big satellite, four times the size of any intelligence satellite ever since. He fired between 1973. and 1980. year and was mainly intended for mapping, with an average resolution of 4 to 9 meters. This is marked by the beginning of a new era in the exploration of the universe. Maps obtained based on the 12 missions of KH-9 satellites have been for decades in official government charts. The public did not know how to use the fruits of these missions. Some images from the 1963 period. to 1980. were not made available because they are still considered very sensitive from the point of view of national security.


The latest generation of US intelligence satellites had far greater opportunities than previous satellites. Several factors affect the quality of photos taken from space and requires quite a lot of ingenuity to those incorporated in the camera systems. We will mention only the most basic. Photographic resolution means the minimum distance between two points that can still be visually separated. It is usually expressed in the number of visible white and black line, and reconnaissance from space refers to the minimum distance for which applies line resolution. At hindering the conversion of theoretical resolution of any optical system depends on many factors. The shape, color and chemical properties of photographic lenses, and the composition and temperature of the film make it difficult to predict the behavior of the camera in practice. When it comes to satellites, the most important is keeping the situation in the year, otherwise the image will not be sharp as much as it allows the lens. Therefore, the stability must be better than the theoretical optical resolution. If we want to calculate the resolution of an object on the ground, the height of the camera expressed kilometers divide the focal length of the lens in millimeters, and multiply the image size of the lens. The latter is the resolution in lines per millimeter film and lens combinations. The picture quality is greatly limited by the type of film used. The first emulsion used during the early Samos experiments, had a resolution of about 40 lines per millimeter, ie. we could see 40 white and black lines on 1 millimeters width. As the focal lengths of the lens were about 102 cm, the system at conventional flight altitudes could discern objects of diameter around 2,5 m. Later films and cameras have optical resolution of about 150 lines per millimeter, so at standard focal lengths of the lens of about 2,5 m they discern objects over half a meter. By increasing the focal length of the lens theoretically resolution can be up to 15 cm. However, the Earth's atmosphere is setting limits that can not overcome any optical solution. Taking into account the standard conditions, this limit is about 10 cm. It is to be said that up to the moment of launching the first Great Birds, intelligenceists accept photos with a resolution of about half a meter. Thus, we can identify an individual person, to measure the size of the wheels on the vehicle, determine the length of the barrels or the diameter of the inlet channel jet engine on a modern fighter plane. The possibilities are indeed countless. In addition, depending on the shape of the object, and the resolution can be improved. The camera Large birds do not perceive only objects pages larger than half a meter, but also those whose width, or diameter, only a fraction of that size, specifically at least 5 percent of that. In other words, this means that the developed 2,5 cm cable will also be seen in the developed film. The photo show the steel cable for the withdrawal of tanks and trucks, overhead power lines, but also traces of small wheels on the muddy ground. The development plans based on the interrupted MOL project, Big Bird is used for reconnaissance larger and smaller resolution over large territories, using just over trajectories of satellites for a closer look (which are still launched as needed). The latter, as we know, have remained in orbit for only about two months, in contrast to the great birds working life that was about three times more. Her predecessors rarely survived for more than three weeks. Similar to other aircraft of this purpose, the new Lockheed satellite uses the Sun-synchronized path, selected so that a particular area of ​​the Earth is observed at least once a day at the time of daylight, so that the sun is always at an equal height. This is very important for measuring the relative size of the objects on the ground, and it also allows for a computational comparison of images taken over a long period of time. The paths synchronized with Sun are the ones in which its precession (revolving) around the planet is aligned with the Earth's Revolution of the Sun. Placed in a common plane of the axis of the Earth and the Sun, the satellite is moving almost perpendicular to the line and over a particular area comes at the same time. This geometry of the paths has several advantages. If the shape and size of an item can not be determined only from one photograph taken at a certain angle of the Sun's light, other satellites arriving at the second time of the day will be on the job and the shadow movement will be observed. In addition, the smaller the adjustments in the path can really extend the stay of a certain area. The Soviets tried it for the first time on Vostoku 251 with the launch of 1968. Americans have used this technique since the time of Agene D, so with. the beginning of the sixties.

Due to prolonged lifetime and larger tasks of the Great Birds, the exact positioning in the path that is synchronized with Sun is of crucial importance. In January 1972. the second satellite of this series was launched, and the third half of the year later. The trajectory elements were changed several times during flight; sometimes there is a small perigeum, sometimes a prolonged apogee. The landing time of the Earth has not changed in order to keep up with Sun.

The third-generation third-generation satellite to control larger areas, carried by the Thor-Agena D rocket, was launched in May by 1972. The time has come for a new way of working. From that moment on, the Great Bird will take on continuous control of the wider area, while smaller planes for the close-up look for more interesting individual goals. From 1972. two to three such aircraft are launched annually, while a similar number of Great Birds gradually prolongs operational life span. For the first time, their lifetime is limited to two to three months, and from the thread 1973. flies up to five months before being issued an order for return and destruction in the atmosphere, of course, over the uninhabited part of the Earth's ball. The latest improvement of this kind of satellite intelligence came December 1976. In this case, it is not to talk about the fifth generation of aircraft, but about the extension of the Great Birds to enable faster exchange of information with terrestrial stations for monitoring. Throughout the entire period of use of CIA intelligence satellites, the data value is measured at the rate at which they become available. The US defense ministry and its services agree with the statement that the films from the Big Bird capsules are not reaching the shortest way! After separating from the hull of the satellite, a small rocket engine reduced its speed to return to the atmosphere. In the air, the capsule catches the plane C-130 (Task was entrusted 659. Experimental squadron), and then the film is over Hawaii forwarded to Andrews Air Force Base Washington end. From it it is time led to the National Intelligence Office (National Reconnaissance Office) where it is located and the Center for photo processing (National Photographic Interpretation Center).

satellite Name
KH-5 ARGON
KH-6 lanyard
KH-7 GAMBIT
KH-8 GAMBIT
KH-9 HEXAGON
KH-11 KENNAN / CRYSTAL
orbit height
322 km
172 km
170 - 345 km
155 - 470 km
186 - 296 km
211 - 414 km
Period use series
February 1961 1964 to August
March 1963 to July 1963
1963 to 1967
1966 to 1984
1971 to 1986
1976 to 1988
The life span of satellites
cca 29 days
33 days
5,47 days
50 to 80 days
52 to 275 days
987 to 1175 days
Missions
total / successful
12 / 6
3 / 1
38 / 36
60 / 57
20 / 19
10 / 9
Type primary camera
KH-type frame 5
E-type panoramic 5
Total number of cameras
1
1
2
2
4
?
the ability to increase
8 x
16 x
Focal length of the lens
7,6 cm
167,6 cm
recording Format
11,5 x 11,5 cm
11,5 x 63,5 cm
Size of recorded surface
483 483 km x
12 64 km x
Resolution of the recorded surface
140 m
1,8 m
Film width
12,7 cm
12,7 cm
Length film / recording frame
6859 m / 38578
686 m / 910
Movie resolution
30 line / mm
160 line / mm
Contrast of the movie
1:4250000
1:100000
Satellite mass
1274 kg
1500 kg
2000 kg
3000 kg
11400 kg
13500 kg
A rocket launcher
TA Thor Agena D
TA Thor Agena D
SLV-3 Atlas / Agena D
Titan 3B
Titan 3D
Titanium 3D or 34D
Satellite Height
diameter satellites

cca 7,6 m
cca 1,5 m

cca 10,6 m
cca 1,5 m
cca 12 m
cca 1,5 m
cca 14,2 m
cca 1,5 m
cca 15,2 m
cca 3 m
cca 13,2 m
cca 3 m
Rocket weight - start / useful load
67819 / 1500 kg
67819 / 1500 kg
156540 / 3300 kg
612990 / 12300 kg
723490 / 14515 kg
Height / diameter of the missile
31,0 / 2,4 m
31,0 / 2,4 m
45,0 / 3,1 m
36,0 / 3,1 m
50,0 / 3,1 m

When satellites took over espionage, it was equally important to catch as much electronic information as possible. This part of the intelligence is usually forgotten because it is not as attractive as photographs of military objects. For a good analyst, the type, shape, and strength of the activity in the electromagnetic spectrum are crucial for accurately determining the character of the object in the photograph. The electronic ear is, therefore, the third dimension of the otherwise flat display, adding information about a seemingly abandoned building or a disguised operational headquarters. The history of electronic satellite "detectives" mirrored the development of intelligence spacecraft at all. There are two types of airforce programs developed, one on the basis Agena B i D and the other was launched along with photographic satellites. The first model, depending on the strength of the carrier, had a mass of 1000 to 2000 kg, while the other was much smaller, weighing several tens of pounds. Unlike the elliptical trajectories of other intelligence satellites, the detectives flew to stable, almost circular orbits, and their work lives were much longer. The first fleet of the model launched by its own carrier begins May 1962, as the beginning of the series that came in the first half of the seventies. The last launch of such a satellite was followed by 14. December 1971, when a relatively high number of people arrived in the same trail with the same carrier. Most of the "detectives" are placed in orbit 400 to 550 km over Earth. Several had been flying over 900 km above the planet, and the last one was one of these. All in all, over a decade, about 33 satellites of this kind are launched, all designed to study radar radiation geometry.

The second model, launched in the universe along with larger satellites, starts work on June 1963. Since January 1972. little detective intelligence aircraft on Titanium 30 they went on a journey together with the Great Birds, taking over the jobs of separate satellites. Still, not all Great Birds wore pods, though some wore at least two. One of them, separate from Great Birds 7 which flown at an altitude between 159 and 275 km, rose to a circular path of nearly 1460 km above the Earth. A similar procedure was used later. Detective satellites of both kinds have been used for all types of electronic intelligence including wiretapping radio, monitoring military operation, detecting radar devices and their characteristics - in short, for all intelligence tasks in the depth of the territory of the rival, where there is no possibility of interrogation (relative ) proximity.

Great improvements in digital data transfer technology from satellites enable the development of special devices for direct image transmission to the Earth. At the beginning of the seventies, shortly after the appearance of the first models of the Great Birds, the constructors started preparing the following improved models. Satelite known as the title KH-11 (these satellites had a codename Kennan i CRYSTAL) Took the roots of Project 1010 trusted company TRW and unlike his predecessors, he did not have a film capsule, but electromagnetic signals shipped to earth almost in real time via relay satellites (SDS-1, SDS-2, TDRSS and others) in higher orbits. In the Earth Observation Station, the signals were recorded on the tape and then converted into photos. The resolution of satellite images KH-11 was rated at 10 to 15 cm, and could make 8 to 10 images per minute. KH-11 flew in an approximately polar, sunny synchronous orbit with 98 ° inclination at altitudes around 300 - 1000 km, allowing the satellite to travel Earth a little less than 15 times a day. Considering that there were only two satellites in the orbit, their trajectories were aligned so that one satellite had crossed a certain area in the morning and the other in the afternoon, so every area was under surveillance twice a day. The life span of the KH-11 satellite was 3 years, and was last launched in November 1988. years. The shape and magnitude of the Hubble Space Telescope is very similar to the KH-11 satellites.

Directly sending digital photos is just one of the improvements in new technology. The KH-11 was created to finally bridge the gap between the old disposable satellites and the new multi-use generators that will reach the universe in the cargo space of a "semitrailer", and will return to the Earth as well. The first among them is expected over the next few years. The first KH-11 fled from the Vandenberg 19 base. December 1976, with an apogee almost twice as high as in the early Big Birds. From their very beginnings their life span was about a year, ie about twice as long as Lockheed's return capsules satellites. However, KH-11 did not completely replace them; their roles were supplemented.

Before 14. June 1978. when the second KH-11 was launched, two conventional Great Birds were launched, the first in June, 1977, the second in March, 1978. years. The next three KH-11s go to the March and May 1979 trajectory. or 7. February 1980. For all that time, while the Great Birds and their heirs have complemented each other, the satellites for close-ups are constantly seeking special targets and objects on the ground. The introduction of the generation KH-11 into the infor- mation from the universe introduces the fastest possible delivery of information as a newsprint, of invaluable importance to interested government and military organs. Near the end of the 70, fewer satellites have been launched annually for oversight of large territories, but each one was equipped with the latest technology and qualified for a multitude of additional tasks. Large birds carried several different sensor systems, as well as smaller satellites that went to their own secret tasks. The Titan 3D Rocket of about 13 tonnes allowed the launch of various cargoes.

From 1959. When the first time attempted to restore data from the universe, intelligence satellites are really making great progress. That was a lot of money and turned into a significant state budget bill. Without them, however, many positive steps would probably never have been done, just as without them they would never find out about the big mistake that began in such a weapon race the world had not yet met.

And then, 1978, the Soviets receive information vital to their next steps. The story begins the previous summer, when a respectable young son of a Greek immigrant, William P. Kampiles, working as a CIA Chief Operating Officer. Kampiles is hired in February of that year, and in the short term this is often surprising to colleagues with a simple sense of truth. He was a strange dramatic figure, and in a new job he sees the opportunity to go out of anonymity. The job he performed was not particularly important, but secret documents, including technical manuals of the KH-11 satellite system, were available. That summer, Kampiles took a copy of 155 (for intelligence and defense services printed on 350) because the document, as he said, made the most interesting, slim little brochure and hiding in a sports coat. Upon leaving the building nobody stops it. A few months later, in October, Kampillas are persuaded to resign. The secret document refers to the mother's apartment (his father died of 1964 more), and the corner of the leaf cuts the label ťTAJNOŤ so no one would have suspected the booklet. This winter, that is to say, in February, he took the document in Athens, and during his stay with friends he visited the Soviet embassy. Somewhere around 23. that month he met with a military attache, Major Mouse Zavalijem, and offers him important secret information for sale. Kampiles because of the danger of blackmail is using a false name, and as evidence brings several first pages of the KH-11 manual. Zavala told him he would not get any money until the document was carefully studied. At the beginning of March, Kampiles handed over several pages, and the Soviets paid him a miserable sum of 3 thousand dollars. Kampiles then returns to the United States, at Oak Bridge, Illinois, where he is employed in a research lab. He could not break his adventure with a friend, who had accidentally had a CIA acquaintance, boasted of playing a double role, and blamed the KGB for useless information that would cause a lot of confusion. Kampiles made a mistake when he thought his self-indulgence would go unnoticed. 17. April 1978. there are detectives from the Federal Research Office. But damage has already been done. The Soviets knew at least what KH-11 could, and on the pages of the brochure they received was the technical description of the American most secret satellite, even with a beautiful artwork of the aircraft! As long as Kampiles did not receive secret information, they did not know what kind of system he was doing, nor did he have any geographic restrictions.

In 1990. was launched the first "upgraded KH-11", which is referred to in the public as KH-12 and the names IMPROVED CRYSTAL i IKON. The upgraded KH-11 with its 16300 kg is much harder than its predecessor (around 10 ton with fuel), and a large part of the mass increase goes to the 6350 kg of propulsion fuel that the satellite carries in the support module on its back. A large amount of fuel gives it a long life, because it can repair its almost polar, sunny synchronous orbit at a height of around 300 x 1000 km. In addition to improved sensors, which work in the visual and near IC part of the spectrum, the satellite has a more thermovisual sensor that the user can determine, for example, whether the building is being watched or not. Enhanced photo processing electronics make sharper images, satellite can make them up to 12 per minute, satellite resolution is estimated at 10 cm for square or round surfaces and is capable of discerning linear structure sizes of size 5-8 cm. Such opportunities in the visible spectrum allow for the differentiation of uniformed persons from civilians or the monitoring of smaller groups of people for which satellites are used over Kosovo. The optical system mechanism allows the satellite to photograph objects on a large-angle surface, more than 100 km aside from its path.

There are now three upgraded KH-11 / KH-12 satellites, the latest (USA 161) was launched in November 2001. years. Their action is coordinated with three smaller satellite surveyors, of which there is virtually no information, and with three other radar surveyor satellites Lacrosse / Onyx. The price of one satellite KH-12 is approximately 1 billion USD, and another 300 million dollar is carrying a rocket launcher Titan IVB, which takes the satellite to the orbit.

Bad weather, due to cloud layers, often prevents the successful operation of photographic surveying satellites. When using radar weather, they are not an obstacle, and because of that, the 70 team has begun developing the 1982 radar image survey satellite for years. have set in orbit the prototype of such a satellite with a name INDIGO, and in December 1998 is a rocket launcher Space Shuttle brought into the orbit of the first operational radar imaging reconnaissance satellite LACROSSE (program names and names VEGA i ONIX). Satellite uses radar for synthetic image assembly (Synthetic Aperture Radar, SAR) - this is the technique of radar activity, where by assembling reflected radar energy from the target area from different points of its own path, it is possible to design a very detailed radar image of the target. The Lacrosse satellite resolution is most likely about 1 meters and is weaker than the KH-12 satellite, but it allows monitoring of targets at night and in all weather conditions, it is possible to track moving vehicles and detect shelters up to 3 meters below ground, and submarine for time sailing at the periscope depth (10-15 m). The Lacosste radar has probably several possible modes of action, in addition to precision tracking of a particular target, while controlling larger areas, of course, with smaller resolution of shots. Satellite Lacrosse flies in orbit around 680 km with inclination 57 ° and 68 °. Of the four launch satellites now operating three (two in 68-grade orbit, one in 57-degree), the latest (USA 152) was using the Titan IVB carrying rocket launched in August 2000. years.

NRA in September 2000. celebrated 40 years of existence. At the celebration was honored 56 pioneers and founders who have contributed to the development of systems for surveillance from space. Today NRA employs about 3000 people from various federal agencies (CIA, National Security Agency, etc.). Specific details of the budget are confidential, and it is considered that the 2000. year he was over 6 billion dollars. Analysts estimate that so far spent about 200 billion dollars on the design, development, launch and management of spy satellites.

Is it the end of the Cold War NRA lost his job? A former director of the NRA's, Eduard Oldridge, now president of the Aerospace Corporation in El Segunda, California, believes that there are more problematic points and places in the world for Americans that require greater attention than ever in the past.

ZENIT, JANTAR, ARKON AND ORLEC

Soviet armed forces are 1956. year raised the demand for a reconnaissance satellite. Due to disagreements in the former Soviet Union, have the advantage of having space flights manned or military reconnaissance program, made the compromise that both programs use the same spacecraft, which will be based on a spaceship Vostok. You are a 4 and a half-heavy satellite, and were presented to the public in April 1961. when Yuri Gagarin jumps between the Earth as the first man in space. The spacecraft that successfully returned through the atmosphere with human cargo, often wore photographic equipment for espionage purposes. In this cosmonaut can not operate aircraft - commands coming from Earth.

International agreement, which supported both superpowers, committed to each country made public the launch of satellites and space probes. Opposition to the United Nations US attempts to cover-up launch military satellites, prompted protests countries interested in compensation for damages caused by the fall of parts of spacecraft. But maintaining strict confidentiality nature of military space flight is not contrary to the agreement. So 22. November 1961, without releasing the nature of the mission, launched a rocket Atlas-Agena B. From that moment, because of appeasing the public concerned about the danger of the arms race, almost all military flights invested with a veil of secrecy.

Four months later, 16. March 1962, the Soviets launched Cosmos 1 and announced that the program of this name include scientific research and technical experiments. In fact, from the first moment they except for civilian flights and used for military purposes. And so, under the symbol of the Cosmos, and the Soviets start espionage activities from space. Cosmos 4, 26 launched. April, represents the first generation system, used for the purposes of military intelligence from the beginning 1962, and was based on the aforementioned aircraft Vostok manned.

Reconnaissance program is designated as a ZENIT. The first fully successful flight made a satellite type Zenit-2 with the tag Cosmos-12 in December 1962. years. The first generation Zenit-2 Soviet satellites had the expected resolution of 10-15 meters, the photographic equipment and the film were placed in a ball-shaped capsule, which, after completing the flight (lasting 8 days) of the whole shaft on Earth, the equipment could be re-used. From the very beginning, Zenit-2 satellites were equipped with electronic scanning equipment Coast-12M. Later versions of Zenit-2 satellites were equipped with a television camera, albeit similar to US projects Samos, showed that the technology at the time did not yet meet expectations. Zenith-2 was followed by improved second generation satellites Zenit-2M with a lifetime of 12 days, high resolution Zenit-4 with the ability to maneuver into orbit and third generation satellites Zenit-4M, Zenith-MK, Zenit-MKM, Zenit-MKT, Zenit-MT i Zenit-6.

Conclusion 1963. a new model appeared, possibly also based on Vostok. dubbed Cosmos-22, a pilot flight set into Earth's 5,5 tonight satellite track in a mission that lasted for 6 days. With its five feet it was a little longer than the previous model, but it kept the diameter of the 2,4 m. It was the first of many satellites with photographic equipment of high resolution capability, launched under the cosmic name. Unlike the US, the Soviet intelligence satellites had a slope of 51, 65 or 73 degrees. To 1966. all were launched from Tjura Tama and then from Plesecka.

In March, 1968. The Soviets launch a new, heavily modified and improved third-generation military satellite. Mass 5,9 ton, 400 kg more than second generation satellites used by 1963, the new model retained the basic Vostok casing but also carried a capsule to return to the atmosphere that returned the day before the main part of the spacecraft. In addition, the new satellite stayed on the 12 day, four days longer than its predecessor. All in all, it was a significant improvement. By the end of next year, another improvement was noted. For the first time, Soviet intelligence satellites changed the way to the command of Earth, leaving the area of ​​interest without waiting for it to reach the old one. These movable models of 6,3 masses are twice as big as their American rivals from that time. The Great American Bird, which is still in its infancy, will be almost twice as massive.

By the end of the seventies Western intelligentsis perceived the widespread use of codes and space flights. Until then, the Soviets were using them only in military intelligence satellites, while civilian and scientific flights communicated through open channels. Military Saljut missions, say, also use special modes of communication, but this changes rapidly at the end of the decade, and the true character of some flights remains a secret.

Encouraged by the loss of US intelligence equipment along the southwestern border and gaining important information about the secret KH-11 satellite, the Soviet challenge reaches unmatched proportions. During that period, many technological newspapers were introduced in intelligence satellites. To 1975. Aircrafts are divided into three different types. They are the first ones with a two-week lifetime that transmits data at the 19,994 MHz frequency. When they return to the Earth, they broadcast the bruising signs of "TG", and some of them, before entering the atmosphere, throw out a smaller sublayer. This would take a few days before returning.

The second type, replaced by the emergence of the first and third types, flying around 13 days and also returned to Earth. Transmit for the frequency or 19,995 20,005 MHz and the radio station sends signals to locate ťTKŤ. The third type of send dual tone signals at a frequency 19,989 MHz, with a lifespan of also 13 days. The main satellite sent Morse signals ťTLŤ and his podsatelit, kicked out at the end of the year, ťTFŤ. All the three types of relying on the construction of the Vostok spacecraft, and were the best adjustment of the basic spacecraft before the introduction of satellite-based Soyuz.

Like the US, and Soviet intelligence satellites often take off, if necessary, and in accordance with a new defense program, or a stroke of a foreign country. Typical examples clearly show what it is. In October 1967, just days before NASA planning to send a vessel to the first Apollo flight, the Soviets launched cosmos 246 in the footsteps of the Cape Canaveral at noon. As the satellite had an extremely low perige that slowly reduces the cycle, its earthly traces group around Florida. Only half an hour after the launch of Apollos, the Cosmos is overwhelmed by the launch, and the day later it returns to the Earth. His signal is captured by hunters from Stockholm. Cosmic 246 is one of the kind that does not change the path, but examples from 1971. show that maneuvering abilities of the then models are used to trace the traces to a certain area of ​​the earth's surface.

At the end of this year, in fact, a conflict between India and Bangladesh, the Soviet intelligence 6. December with Tyuratam sent a satellite to the situation closer look. Path Cosmosa 463 had the inclination of 65 degrees to the equator, and one tour of the Earth spacecraft was spending 89,3 minutes. The day after the launch, in 14. circulation, the satellite passes over Bangladesh, and three hours later dropped the rocket engines and circulation period falls on 89 minutes. This stops the movement trace of the satellites to the west, but he passes over areas in the local noon, ie. At the time when the sun is highest above the horizon. Two days spacecraft photographed all that interested in Soviet intelligence, and then control the flight raises perigee and thus the satellite moves to the west, which allows lowering 11. December

The previous day, a short while before Cosmos 463 drove out of Bangladesh, launched cosmos 464, With a slope of 72,9 degree. It has traces of satellites directed more towards the meridian, because the path is closer to the polar axis. The circulation period of 90,3 minutes spacecraft is curved to the west 5 linear degrees daily. At noon 13. December satellite passes over Bangladesh, and three hours later performed a maneuver to reduce the height trajectory, reducing the time of circulation, or limitation of the turns in the only degree day. This is actually synced orbit to the desired area, because it follows a long shooting field. Cosmos is 464 16. December back to Earth.

With these two satellites, the Soviets maintain almost uninterrupted surveillance over the war. Two years later, for political purposes, a similar way would be used. This is a classic example of the technique when, due to achieving the best results, the disadvantages of one system complement the other. October is 1973, a time when the unresolved conflict between Israel, Syria and Egypt is re-emerging. With the help of Soviet weapons and other necessary military equipment, President Sadat wants to once and for all expel Israelis from Sinai. At the same time as the joint attack by the Egyptian and Syrian army, Israel will be forced to surrender, and the territory gained in the previous conflict will be returned. Or at least they thought of Egyptian and Syrian strata. Afternoon 6. October begins massive artillery and air attack on the unfinished Israeli army, with the simultaneous passing of the Suez Canal. Israeli tanks moving to help the infant have quickly been destroyed. Just one hour after the start of the attack, from the launchpad at Pleseck, it's leaving cosmos 597. The Soviets knew about the beginning of hostilities, it must have been informed of the start of the conflict, but it does not want to interfere but decided to give only intelligence on the course of events at the front. When the Egyptians attacked Israel, is one of the satellite already circled around the Earth. It was cosmos 596Sent from the Plesetsk three days before due to the recording area of ​​conflict resolution cameras small. Unlike him, Cosmos 597 was designed for close-up, with the possibility of changing the trajectory. Two days after the beginning of the war coming over the Middle East, missile engines it hut, reducing orbital period and synchronized with the rotation of the Earth beneath it. His predecessor had already moved away from the scene of the conflict, however, 9. October returns to the atmosphere. Cosmos 597 65,4 degree is inclined to the equator, just as it takes to the trail crossed the Suez and Sinai, on the Sea of ​​Galilee and Syria, which with more than 800 tanks pressed Israeli brigade in the north.

The day after Cosmos 596 is down to Earth, Pleseck breaks cosmos 598. This satellite has an inclination orbit of 72,9 degree. The intentions of Syrian troops to enter for two days in Israel proved to be completely unfounded, because in the battle on the Golan Heights ratio power turned against the attackers. But on the Sinai front, Sadat forces suppress the Israelis, because the Egyptian armored forces can oppose only a hundred tanks. Anti-tank weapons received from the Soviets applied Israelis heavy losses, and it is, in any case, the important battleground. Steeper trajectory Cosmos 598 allows him to more day after the launch reached over Sinai and start shooting. The next day on Earth returns Cosmos 597 full of cassettes with movies. His successor should oversee the area in which Sadat give CAUP de grace. The Soviets obviously were sufficiently concerned about the course of events, because they watched a live television footage through the Jevpatorija station in Crimea. The cosmic 598 was just so high that it would allow the surveillance of the Sinai conflict with the help of a TV camera. What they saw in the photographs would surely have been terrible to them because 14. October, only three days after the satellite reaches the target, Egyptian armored units are almost out of date. Nearly a thousand Egyptian tanks take part in battles east of Suez, but by the end of the day, the Israelis, with the loss of only 20 pieces, destroy a quarter of the enemy force. The following night, General Ariel Sharon leads the parachutes and protective armor over the canal, and on the west coast he establishes a mosque.

Before you will be 16. October back to Earth, Cosmos 598 collects a wealth of information unfavorable to the Egyptians and Soviets. A day earlier, just before Sharonovog attacks, in orbit inclined 65 degrees to the equator arrives cosmos 599. He served photographing larger territory, so it is considered that it was not related to this armed conflict. During 16. October Soviets do not receive photos from the battlefield - Cosmos 598 returned to Earth - but then from the Plesetsk launch cosmos 600. He traveled along the 72,8 gradient path and headed for a day later. What his cameras saw was confirmed by Israeli claims: moving quickly from newly-gained positions to the west coast of the Suez Canal, Israelis destroy a large number of ground-to-air missiles and other military installations. The Soviet military attaché visits President Sadat and assures him of the seriousness of the situation. Sadat does not believe, and only the satellite images that see the power of the Israeli attack open their eyes and agree to the Soviet offer: transport aircraft are beginning to speed up the equipment and staff to help the Egyptian army. But the war has been practically lost, and the Soviets know that Egypt has almost no chance of succeeding. Therefore, the campaign for the ceasefire begins immediately, agreeing with the American attitude. After a couple of days, 20. October, the orbit arrives cosmos 602And 24 hours later arrives over the Middle East. Two days later, the earth down his predecessor, Cosmos 600. The trajectory of the Cosmos 602 been selected to complement the task of the Cosmos 599 who still flies. The situation on the battlefield is getting worse by the Egyptian side, and not lose a moment: the Israeli army moves west toward 3. Egypt. The Soviets could not afford a failure in the observations.

By crossing the Cairo-Suez road, Israelis cut off the supply of 3. Army. Israel has caught the enemy of lice. Official suspension of fire comes into effect on 22. October, but sporadic thunderclaps get worse in another big conflict when 3. the army strives to regain the utter glory. The Israelis are advancing to Ismailia, putting the Egyptians in an unbeatable position, and Cairo is completely cut off from all the roads leading east. cosmos 603 launched 27. October and two days later on Earth returns Cosmos 602. The last in this series remains in the universe 13 days, watching the last sparks almost extinct conflict.

This example shows very well how the Soviet intelligenceers have led the undeclared government to decisive action. (It should be said that Egypt was already slowly suspicious of Soviet intentions in that area). But the impetus came too late, and when the power ratio is completely turned against the allies, the Soviet withdraws and backs the United Nations ceasefire. The use of intelligence satellites to support foreign policy and the persuasion of friendly governments in the wisdom of joint action is not the only experience of the Arab-Israeli war of 1973. But this is a good example of how satellites can give important information to friends in other countries. Without Soviet photos, Sadat would not believe in reports from the battlefield. Using this technique to convince the allies was for the Soviets quite useful; they could not of course know that the Egyptians would turn their backs to the less ambitious West.

During the seventies, Soviet launches on average 30 to 35 intelligence satellites annually, and when the Vostok model replaces better on the basis of Sojuza, that number decreases. It is difficult to determine exactly the role of each of them, but it is certain that some of them were similar to American investigators launched by Great Birds. It is pretty, however, certain that Soviets use such satellites since 1967. That year, in fact, launched five Cosmos aircraft of this kind. One of them had a mass of approximately 400 kg, it was a long 1,8 with a diameter of 1,2 m. In the 71 gradient slope was launched by a rocket B-1. It was revised version of an older model of intercontinental ballistic missiles intended for the carrying of small loads. Great SS-6 the rocket, known as a carrier, was used for the launch of Sputnik 1 and his like many satellites, and so little weight for it is not cost-effective.

Conclusion 1967. there is a new e-tapping model worn in the C-type missile track. It had a mass around 900 kg, approximately 2 long and 1 m wide. Like its predecessor, he flew elliptical, but the incline to the equator was 74. All satellites of these types were launched from Plesecka. Type C rocker was bigger and stronger than type B, and the masses mentioned were probably at the bearing limit. These carriers were ideally adapted to the economical launch of relatively small satellites.

In recent years Soviets launch smaller spacecraft for electronic eavesdropping, so the total falls from ten to six. There are a lot more frequent satellite flights to listen to radio broadcasts destined for the USSR or the Warsaw Pact countries. Because of their specific position, the Soviets have great difficulties in capturing foreign radio stations. The satellites are just fine for these purposes, so they launch the 20 to 35 aircraft this year. So the information gathered is used for all secret actions in foreign countries, just like the CIA in the United States. Americans are also knocking off foreign radio shows, but earth stations more effectively cover most of the Earth's balloons, if not because of the other, due to a large number of countries favoring the West. Until the mid-seventies, the Soviets established an orbital network of eight "detectives" that are in constant operation, with a path chosen to cover interesting areas. Using them and other terrestrial equipment, they efficiently electronically monitor the entire planet.

The first representative of the fourth generation of Soviet reconnaissance satellites was AMBER-2K (Code name PHOENIX), which entered into regular use in May 1978. years. Jantar-2K satellites were equipped with two smaller return capsules to restore recorded movies while performing orbiting tasks, and at the end of the life of the universe (30 days), Earth returned to the lower part of the satellite where the photographic equipment and the rest of the film. All Jantar satellites had the ability to conduct a maneuver in orbit, which means that the satellite can change to some extent the orbit and fix its course, thereby increasing its life span.

Since Phoenix did not meet expectations, an improved version of the satellite was developed JANTAR-4K1 OKTANTWhich entered into operation 1982. years. Satellites Octant had a lifespan of up to 45 60 days (later versions), two small return capsule and an improved high-resolution photographic equipment in the main return capsule. With them made up for high-resolution satellites type Zenit.

Satellite Octant in turn is soon replaced by improved AMBER-4K2 COBALT, That Russian armed forces still used for reconnaissance tasks. Satellites Cobalt flights to low orbit, at an altitude between the 165 and 400 km, and inclination between the 52 and 70 °, and a period of about 90 minutes. The development of electro-optic reconnaissance satellites with digital transmission of the image is in the USSR started relatively late, 1977 years, when the Americans have used satellites type KH-11. For the development of its satellites with digital transmission of the image, which should have the same ability as American satellites KH-11, the Russians used the already developed vessel type Amber. However, the slow development of electronic equipment and the size of the vessel Amber are not able to make new types of satellites could be compared with the US.

Nevertheless, there is a reconnaissance satellite with both visual and (closer) IC photographic system with digital transmission of images AMBER-4KS1 terilen. Satellites terilen recordings receiving stations send via relay communications satellite system Tok-Light (Luč).

Satellite Terilen, which were in use by 1982. to 1990. year, they replaced the more powerful satellites MONSTER (probable mark AMBER-4KS2), which Russia is still occasionally launching into the orbit. Satellites Neman have a life of one year, flying in orbit 240 x 300 km with incidence of 64,7 ° and a period of 90 minutes. Non-satellites also do not carry capsules, but digitally send image information directly to control centers or via satellites Potok. Last Satellite Neman (Kosmos 2370) was launched in May by 2000. and operated until May 2001. year, after which he was thrown out of orbit.

After long-term development, which is even more difficult for the dissolution of the former Soviet Union, Russia's designers managed to make electro-optical reconnaissance satellite, comparable with US KH-11. In June 1997. year is the most powerful Russian carrier rocket Proton in the orbit, the satellite is off Kosmos 2344. The orbit of the new satellite (height in the apogee 2479 km, perigue 1516 km, incubation 63,4 °, period 130 minutes) caused suspicion in the West of the purpose of that satellite. The first assessment was that the orbit was too high for photographic or radar scouting and too low for early warning satellites, and that could be satellite for electronic scouting. However, additional information has shown that it is an electro-optic satellite ARKON-1. Due to the height of the satellite the resolution could be 2 to 5 meters, and tilting the satellite to 20 ° left and right can capture areas on the Earth's surface to 1000 km aside from its current path. It should be noted that the United States also develop (possibly already using) survey satellites flying in higher elliptical orbit (5000 x 500 km). The advantage of such orbits is that the satellite may have more time to hold over a certain area while elevating the height to the apogee, but the disadvantage is the lower resolution of images taken at a greater distance. Information on how much Arkona-1 life span is unknown, as well as information about new launches in such an orbit.

In addition to the satellite with digital imaging Russia still uses a new generation of satellites with a large number of return capsules. ORLEC-1 DON had 10 to 12 capsules, which returned to Earth at intervals of 7 to 10 days, and at the end of the mission was destroyed in orbit. The first Don had flown the 1989 year, and there was a total 6 launch of that satellite. The following was improved ORLEC-2 JENISEJEquipped with 22 return capsule. The first operational satellite type Yenisey (Kosmos 2290) Was launched in August 1994. The orbit and stayed 221 day, another operating Yenisey (Kosmos 2372) was launched in the space of 2000 in September. and the orbits stayed on 207 days. Unlike the satellite Don, Jenis was not destroyed at the end of the mission but was simply thrown out of orbit.

The latest launch of the Russian photographic reconnaissance satellite was carried 29. May 2001. when he flew to his task Kosmos 2377, satellite type Jantar-4K2 Cobalt. Given its expected lifespan to 120 days, Russia since the end of September 2001. so far (Jan. 2002.) there is no more than one photographic satellite in orbit. The longest time without Russian photographic orbiting satellite surveys, since the beginning of the Soviet satellite survey programs of the year 1962, was from 28. September 1996. to 15. May 1997. when seven-and-a-half months of Russian armed forces did not have any photo satellite orbiting satellites. In September, 2000. Russia launched the primary military cartographic satellite Kometa.

OTHER NATIONAL, INTERNATIONAL AND COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS

France is a civilian satellite for observing the Earth's surface SPOT got a lot of experience in the development and use of satellites. Based on these experiences, she began to develop a military photo reconnaissance satellite HELIOS-1. The program was joined by Italy and Spain. The first satellite, Helios-1, was launched in July 1995. year with a missile Ariane-4, from Kouro to French Guiana. In December 1999. was followed by the launch of another satellite - Helios-1B. The Helios-1 multispectral optical system has a resolution of up to 1 meters, the satellite footage is stored in a digital record, and during the overflow over land monitoring station, it sends them to the reception center. Helios-1 uses a solar synchronous orbit at 680 km with 98 ° inclination. A new generation of satellites is under development, Helios-2, which will have an improved resolution of half a meter.

Satellite Helios-2, which are intended for use up to 2004. will be supplemented by small German satellites SAR-Lupe with a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) radar. With the combined effect of the Helios-2 and SAR-Lupe satellites, Europe would significantly improve its support capabilities for military operations from the universe.

China has launched its first photographic-surveying satellite 1975. year and up to 1999. 17 launched the launch of such satellites. The latest achievement of the Chinese satellite program is satellites Zijuan-2 (Ziyuan, ZY-2), Which is presented as a civilian satellite for observing the surface, but its secondary (primary) task is a photographic reconnaissance. Electro-optical system has a resolution of about 1 meter, which is a significant improvement compared to the previous Chinese satellites with a resolution up to 10 15 meters. The satellite uses a digital image transfer to terrestrial receiving station. Launched in September 2000. , and its anticipated lifetime of the 2 years.

In the 1988-1995 period, Israel successfully launched the 3 satellite type Ofek (Ofeq), tenth flight attempt 1998. year was unsuccessful, and in December 2000. was a Russian rocket launcher Start-1 successfully introduced into orbit the Israeli photographic-survey satellite EROS-A1 with a resolution of about 1 meter. The images from that satellite, in addition to the Israeli armed forces, are also available to commercial users.

India is also developing its program of observation satellites. Satellite TES (Technological Experimental Satellite), launched in October by 2001. Civilian observation and military observatory satellites with a resolution of 1 meters.

Japan also thinks about the development of the space exploration component of its defense forces, especially after North Korea's ballistic missile testing.

In the case of satellite surveys it is necessary to mention the commercial providers of satellite photos - one of such a US company Space Imaging, which sells recordings with resolution 1 meter, made with its satellite Ikonos. Although the action of these companies to some extent governed by US law, it is the images from satellites Ikonos general public allowed a bunch of shots, which had previously been reserved only for rare chosen in the intelligence and defense organizations - eg. Recording of secret US "bases, which there is no "Groom Lake, or better known as area 51, then photos of US aircraft for electronic reconnaissance EP-3 in Chinese airport after colliding with a Chinese hunters and also view from space to the area of ​​the World trade center in New York and damaged the Pentagon in Washington 11 . September 2001. years. During the attack on Afghanistan, the Pentagon of the company Space Imaging just bought (for a little less than 2 million dollars a month) exclusive rights to all satellite images of the area of ​​operation "Enduring Freedom" and so impossible to commercial satellite imagery come into the wrong hands. This means that countries with serious needs for such satellite imagery can not rely on commercial sources, especially in times of crisis.