HOME
OCEAN CONTROL SATELLITES, GEODETIC, TOPOGRAPHIC AND METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITES

NOSS White Cloud - MKRT US-A US-A - Kosmos-198 - Kosmos-209 - Kosmos-367 - Kosmos-402 - Kosmos-469 - Kosmos-954 - Kosmos-1094 - Kosmos-1096 - Kosmos-1176 - Kosmos-1249 - US-PM US-PU Kosmos-2367 - Kosmos-2383 - SPOT - LANDSAT - JANTAR-1KFT KOMETA / SILUET - TIROS - NIMBUS - NOOA, GEOS, PEOS, DMSP - Kosmos-122 - METEOR

Classic Wizard
NOSS
NOSS
NOSS
NOSS
NOSS
Parcae
US-P
U.S.
Spot
Spot
Spot 1 to 3
spot 4
spot 4
spot 5
spot 5
Landsat 4 and 5
Landsat 4 and 5
Landsat 7
Landsat 7

SATELLITES FOR OCEAN CONTROL

One of the satellites for intelligence-gathering intelligence-gathering data is satellite monitoring satellites. The satellite system of the US Navy, designated by the public sources as markers NOSS-2 (Naval Ocean Surveillance System, naval ocean control system), SB-WASS (Space Based Wide Surveillance System, a space control system for large areas), and Cleaning, The successor to the previous program NOSS, or the National Oceanic Satellite System (National Oceanic Satellite System) Also appointed White Cloud (White cloud) Classic Wizard i Parcae (Parke - in the old Greek and Roman mythology of three sisters, the goddess of destiny). The last tag figuratively displays a fairly exemplary manner of the behavior of such passive satellite systems for determining the position of opposing ships on open seas, as well as other sources of electronic signals. The system makes the main satellite and three podsatels (some information speaks of only three podsatelites), flying in mutually specific orbits and passively detecting the position of the electronic signal source. The satellites work on the basis of the time difference of the arrival of the signal, which requires that the satellites travel to each other at exactly the specified distance and communicate between themselves. One podcast has a very wide field of vision, and can not determine the position of the transmitter (the first Park, Kloto, every mortal smacks the thread of life). With the help of another satellite, it is possible to determine the approximate position of the transmitter (the other Park, Lahesis, the distance of the livelihood), and by means of the third podsatelita the transmitter position and thus the opposing ship are precisely determined and then the coordinates are forwarded to reception stations and their military weapons (the third Park, Atropos, a man slams the thread of life).

The Need for Continuous Monitoring of the Movement of the Soviet Navy The Maritime Research Laboratory (US Naval Laboratory) to the company Martin-Marietta entrust the construction of a new type satellite, enabling them to work in their own, well-equipped facilities. The West had the advantage of anti-tank wars, but increasing the number of underwater vessels the Soviet Union is seriously compromising large convoy convoys for the delivery of personnel and equipment to NATO allies or to the Middle East.

The Navy wanted satellite system is different from all previous ones, for interception of radio communications and radar signals submerged submarine in any sea in the world. From the moment the Admiral Gorshkov 1956. took command of the Soviet fleet, number of the vessels of the Soviet Union has increased so much that it is completely justified investments in satellites to control the ocean. Twenty years ago that performed the task aircraft and ships, but with the advent of missile cruiser type'sCrest«Type helicopter platforms»MoscowAnd those new type cruisersKaraT, then really the most powerful vessels in the world, existing methods are no longer able to satisfy.

Entitled Program 749 the Navy begins with an intense study of satellite systems suggested by various manufacturers. At first time, the linkage between the surveillance of the movement of ships and airplanes over the same area seemed feasible; to spy on the US fleet of Soviet patrol are often used by aircraft. At the beginning of the seventies Navy Intelligence used satellite imagery to get information on Soviet fleet movements, and while research into a single system was hampered, potential threats increased. Finally, when sufficient amounts of money are beginning to show results, it is announced that Martin-Marietta will produce satellites of the new system called white cloud. But the first time will be to prevent the spread of the gap, use a transitional system. Satellites to control the ocean really had enough work.

Great Soviet nuclear submarine missile similar to the American Polaris and later Poseidon not practically be possible to follow after immersion. And in the depths of the ocean, these ships are able without difficulty to stay for several months, because, apart from nuclear power generators had and devices for the production of oxygen. However, even this furnished, submarines must use sea water for cooling the reactor and it is, after passing through a heat exchanger, quickly rising to the surface of the ocean. Several commercial satellites to detect natural resources of the planet using infrared sensors to detect small changes in water temperature. It was no secret that some of the Air Force satellites use similar equipment. Included in naval intelligence network, data from such spacecraft are helping the detection of submerged submarines. These goals are really buttery morsel of intelligence because each class submarine'sDelta II, Probably the largest of its kind, is wearing 16 SS-N-8 a nuclear missile with a range of about 8 thousand kilometers.

The first steps towards the successful control of the oceans have been made yet 1971. when the revamped carrier Thor 14. Lockheed Agena December takes off with three satellites for communications interception Soviet ships, and accurately determine their position. The final goal was the creation of an effective system for finding all the Soviet warships, with the eventual possibility of missile guidance on each of them in case of war. The trials were well conducted and the concept has been fully confirmed.

The first prototype system will be launched in April 1976. from the base Vandenberg. The trajectory tends 63,5 degree coming three satellites. Conceived and designed in the Maritime Research Laboratory were the first of the two experimental groups that precede the operating system drawn up in the company of Martin-Marietta. After the launch of each of the aircraft placed in a separate path, parallel to the others, but separated in space and time passes over an item. This means that by using the techniques of interferometry could accurately determine the position of Soviet ships and submarines. Three parallel tracks are mutually spaced 46 kilometers, and to have had the same inclination satellites around the earth move like a convoy. Interferometry is for radio signals what the telescope to light. Using several small antennas to radiozračenja source - in this case the transmitter on board - ťpovećavaŤ for necessary tests. Satellites from 1976. orbiting at an altitude of about 1100 km, which means that detect radio signals from a distance of 3200 km, and each of them except interferometry and gave information on the situation of the vessel.

A year and a half later, 8. December 1977, following three new naval satellites with similar orbital traits. The distance of their trails was somewhat smaller than in the first case and deliberately set 113 degrees one after the other, 3 thousands of miles away from the previous group. At a time when the trio was from 1976. watched ships on the Pacific Ocean, a new one supervised the Atlantic. This is how the first preoperative network was created that sent data at a frequency of about 1,432 MHz with a bandwidth of 1MHz.

NOSS started 1980, as a NASA project, launching three Martin-Marietta satellites in a very similar way to the previous one. But the civilian space administration will pay only a quarter of the development costs, the second quarter will be paid to the Ministry of Commerce, while the remaining half will go to the Ministry of Defense. The reason for this sort of division is that the system will largely serve to meet the needs of the Navy and Navy. Although military space budgets are constantly increasing, this is not enough to address the needs of all programs in the next few years. That is why the Pentagon is trying to reconcile parts of civilian projects with the military, so when they arrive in front of Congress, they have the widest possible support.

NOSS will monitor US naval naval experts in tracking submarines on nuclear power by monitoring small sea surface temperature changes. Experiences in this area already exist, and preliminary trials were carried out on aviation aircraft equipped with infrared sensors. But in that case it was actually a question of validity, and before the design of the operating model it was necessary to try out the right equipment. So while White Clouds (White Cloud) aircraft will track events on the surface of the sea and ocean, NOSS will look for hot water bladders that emerge from nuclear submarines equipped with intercontinental ballistic missiles. This is the first step towards more effective protection measures than the most dangerous combat units in the sea. To carry out the planned tasks, NOSS will be equipped with new, sensitive sensors and other electronic devices.

The microwave radiometer with 3,6 m diameter antenna will observe very small changes in temperature, determine the amount of floating ice and the speed and direction of the wind. The altitude will monitor the sea currents and the altitude of the waves. Another instrument will be in charge of recording motion in the atmosphere. A color scanner will follow the chemical composition of the water. Most of the information mentioned will have great significance for science as well as for the economy in many countries of the world. Of course, most of the system will still have an American Navy that has been waiting for something for years.

Condition of the then modern war technology was such that only submarines with nuclear intercontinental missiles pose a danger against which it was impossible to fight effectively. I find the way to distinguish the sea surface under which they are located, from those where there is nothing more significant than fish shoals, will stop and the role of this type of strategic forces. It would be a revolutionary step in the history of naval warfare, because the position of each enemy submarines immediately known. The Soviets at that time increasingly rely on this type of warships and submarines being built Delta 3 equipped with 16 launching ejection tubes SS-N-18 MIRV missile range 17 thousand kilometers. During 1980. they began the first experiments with the largest submarine in the world, so-called. notTyphoonClass. The display is three times larger than the American and British models Poseidon i Polaris missiles, or half of them larger than the new USOhioT series with Trident missiles.

The NOSS-2 system is one of the ways that military ships allow the use of high-speed weaponry (such as a maneuvering missile version tomahawk BGM-109B for anti-war combat) against targets outside the naval and helicopter radars. Constellation of four satellite systems in orbit around 1000 km and 63 ° inclination allows for control of all areas between 40 ° and 60 ° latitude, more than 30 times per day, and one satellite group observes the area around 3500 km. The Navy has recently used three NOSS-2 satellite systems, which were launched in orbit between 1990. and 1996. The fourth system was destroyed in the explosion of carrying missiles Titan IV in August 1993. years. In September, 2001. the satellite was launched with a label USA 160. It is not known whether this is a replacement system for the lost 1993 accident. year, or is it the first launch in a new series, which will replace the current constellation of NOSS-2 satellites.

Soviet constructors of anti-missile rockets have begun to develop anti-missile maneuvering missiles of great magnitude in 50, which could attack enemy ships across the radar horizon of ships from which to fire these missiles. In order for the Soviet Navy to take full advantage of the potential of a new generation of anti-missile missiles, it was necessary to develop a new way of discovering the targets. By initial studies, Soviet leadership is 1961. approved the development of a satellite system for precise determination of the position of opposing ships, named MKRT. The system consisted of two subsystems, which are your data sent to the supervisory center. One of the sub-systems, networks were passive satellites, called US-P (Sputnik - passive, manageable satellite - passive), which would stop radio and radar signals of opposing ships. The second subsystem was a satellite U.S. (Upravlajemji Sputnik - active, Manageable satellite - active), whose radars actively sought opponent ships to use full radio silence and therefore were "invisible" for passive satellites US-P. Satellites U.S. to operate the radar should be a constant source of electricity, and equip them with generators to nuclear fuel, from the 31,1 90 kg-percent enriched uranium U235. Before re-entering the atmosphere at the end of its lifecycle, the satellite would complete reactor kicked into a higher (900 do1000 km) orbit for disposal. Test launch of US-P began 1965. year, a year 1971. the subsystems of the satellite US-A and US-P become operational.

The Soviet Union has launched all its satellites under the common name cosmos, while in the west the US-A satellites marked the abbreviation RORSAT - Radar Ocean Reconnaissance SATELLITE, radar satellites for ocean surveillance, and satellites with US-P abbreviations EORSAT-ELINT Ocean Reconaissance SATELLITE, satellite monitoring satellite with electronic scanning.

The first aircraft of this type to occur 1967, and intensive research soon lead to a radar models that fly in low orbits. Using infrared or millimeter radar increases the efficiency of the system as it allows finding the ships that electronic ťmrtviŤ. The Soviets launched the annual average of two such satellites that energy for work obtained from a small nuclear generator. The first experiments with My Cosmos is 198 1967, cosmos 209 followed a year later, a cosmos 367 after another year. To 1972. the system is practically fully developed. In the ground, the first satellite was spanned around 14 m, diameter 2,5 m, mass around 4 and pole tone. The launch was made with the manufactured rocket SS-9, the predecessor massive SS-18 which replaces the half 70's. This carrier, called also F model, and used for other purposes, but in the example that we now mention, the satellite also carried the top rocker in an almost circular path at an altitude of about 270 km. After radar shooting of the oceans and ships in foreign ports, the radar equipment disengaged from the rocket fire that burned the engine and climbed 900 km above the Earth. The reason for this was the release of the carrier and the nuclear generator from the additional load of the sensors and the communication devices because of the safer departure to the higher orbit. The physical material of a nuclear generator must in no case reach the atmosphere. On a higher path the satellite can stay for several hundred years, and then the radioactive source will no longer be dangerous.

Initially, from 1967. to 1970, the whole procedure has been thoroughly tested. The Soviets wanted to be completely confident in the success of the enterprise, because premature satellite entry into the atmosphere would certainly have led to an international incident. The extra protection of the generator was theoretically possible, but the mass would then be too big for the capabilities of the missile carrier. The intelligence tasks of this kind of satellite begin with 1971 years, with a fairly large gap between entering the lower and going to the higher trajectory. The first among them, cosmos 402, remained in the lower 8 clock, and the next, cosmos 469, Even longer - for ten days. Work is life aircraft later extended, but each of them remained at a lower level one to two months, after which is always followed by the separation of nuclear generators, which went into a higher orbit, while the rest fell into the atmosphere and burned without danger to the environment.

So it was up to Cosmosa 954, launched by 18. September 1977. Something more than four months after that rocket degree separates from instruments, just as planned. But this time something went wrong and instead of upward, the aircraft is heading towards the atmosphere. During the fall, the Canadian Northwest Territory fell apart and hit radioactive waste. The joint efforts of scientists and researchers from the United States and Canada on frozen soil have accumulated several kilos of dangerous substances. The event has caused public accusations of using nuclear fuel in spacecraft, and in evidence before the United Nations, US experts have proven in their aircraft since 1965. no radioactive material, and that he had never been used on standard satellites. The United States has nevertheless admitted that it is 1962. there was a similar incident, only in that case the fossil fuel had fallen into the Pacific Ocean.

After the accidental discovery of the Soviets no longer launch large intelligence satellites, in the period while performing the necessary changes, sent into space two aircraft with conventional photovoltaic cells. In early 1979. modifications have been completed, but 25. April takes off cosmos 1096, which is in pairs with My Cosmos is 1094 from a height of about 440 km interferometric performed tasks similar tasks, their American brethren. For the Soviets it was a step back because they had had the possibility of radar control, but at that time already very advanced technology of photovoltaic cells needed to power the radar devices. April 1980, in Earth's orbit enters cosmos 1176, the first of the new generation of ocean-going nuclear warships. Later it was successfully thrown into a higher orbit, and in March, 1981. replaces it cosmos 1249 who while working alone, but was later paired with satellite conventional technology.

In early 80's of Americans are therefore well on our way to project white cloud, while the Soviets, in the beginning of much more advanced, than 1979. must meet the less accurate systems with two twin satellites.

In 1988. After five serious accidents in total 33 mission, the Soviets stopped using satellites type US-A. Satellites US-P are 1993. year started nadomještati with improved satellite type US-PM i US-PU. These satellites have a longer life expectancy (18-24 months as opposed to about 12 months), but their number in 90-those years, with the usual 3 to 4 satellites (Kosmos 2347, Kosmos 2335) in orbits at an angle of 120 °, began to decline, and in the last years, Russia maintains only one satellite of that type in orbit - in the foreground, Kosmos 2367, was launched in 26. December 1999. year, and two years later, in December, 2001. It was replaced by a new satellite with a label Kosmos 2383. The satellite US-PM used the orbit at a height of about 410 km and inclination 65 °.

GEODETIC AND TOPOGRAPHIC SATELLITES

Accurate field data and mapping areas of operations are essential for the efficient use of large-scale weapons and the deployment of land units. The satellites can provide this information quickly and without the risk of an opponent mocking. In addition to determining soil characteristics, these satellites carry out accurate measurements of the Earth's gravity and magnetic fields and determine the extent of the earth's spheres, which are all critical parameters for planning large-scale ballistic missile planning. In the West, specialized geodetic satellites replaced civilian (civilian) defense satellites for remote exploration and land surveying, such as satellite series SPOT (French-European) and American LANDSAT. Such satellites provide multispectral photos with sufficient resolution for making certain maps and other geodetic jobs. American National Picture and Cartographic Agency (National Imagery and Mapping Agency) After the Iraqi aggression against Kuwait 1990. year, their maps of the area made just to recordings of these two satellites.

In addition to satellites for remote sensing, for the preparation of detailed maps are also used footage image reconnaissance satellites (KH-12, Lacrosse, Helios-1, etc.) in the mode of scanning the wider area. These satellites, combined with appropriate spatial-geographic data manipulation information systems, allow for mapping, three-dimensional terrain animation, separating specific features important for a particular type of task, and simulating terrain for realistic training, both soldiers and members of intelligence services.

Russia uses precision topographic surveillance to use specialized satellite types Amber-1KFT Comet / Shiloh. The satellites are launched comet once in one or two years, and during his 45-day tasks satellite recorded surface for renewal of topographic and cartographic data Ministry of Defense. The entire photographic equipment satellite is placed in a modified type of balls Vostok / Zenit, Which serves as a return capsule and the top of the satellite control system and the flight-type solar cells is amber. The satellite is equipped with two photographic cameras. Cameras for surveillance of wide areas has a resolution of about 10 meters and with a single image covers an area 200 300 x km, while a high-resolution camera has a resolution 2 meters and single image covers an area 40 x 40 km. Recent satellite launch comet was in September 2000. years.

METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITES

Using photographs and other sources for the needs of warlords and intelligence services traditionally depends on good weather. This prerequisite, present in all similar tasks during the Second World War, is not so important when satellites are on the planet's path that watches its surface from the clock in the watch. However, careful observation of periodic events or activities, as well as the oversight of aircraft and ships movements, is highly dependent on the weather, or the sky, through which the eyes of the spacecraft look from the universe. That is why atmospheric conditions play an essential role in the analysis of intelligence. Even more so, because in the event of a war conflict, both sides must know the local meteorological conditions, which helps to determine goals and make synoptic maps. Already one of the first intelligence satellites has shown the importance of accurate forecasting of weather conditions over a particular area. The current mode of forecasting, when military stations across the globe have submitted data on the local state of the atmosphere to the central computing center, becomes ridiculous after the introduction of the satellite network. Given that the great sea and the oceans are the main drivers of atmospheric change, and in these areas there are at least meteorological stations, supervision of these areas is obviously of the utmost importance. In addition, at much more ground level, the effectiveness of nuclear weapons depends heavily on weather conditions, so there is a need for reliable data that is collected without interruption. The spread of the radioactive cloud and the action of relatively small tactical head pains mostly depends on these factors. But aeronautical forces began to use special meteorological satellites relatively late, relying first on civilians. Radio Corporation of America (RCA) intensively studying the weather and weather forecasts - during the 1950s many of them worked in the field for the military - so when NASA starts the development of the first meteorological satellite called Tiros, The RCA takes over the construction. Launched in the 1960 period. to 1965. ten satellites and the series spanned the planet with elliptical trajectories with a perigee of about 640, and with an apogee of 940 km, a slope between 48 and 59 degrees.

For the first few years, the Ministry of Defense analyzed the events in the atmosphere using Tiros photos. The development of these methods enables the creation of criteria applied to the creation of new intelligence aircraft and the use of the battlefield. The Ministry of Defense's specialists want great resolution images from relatively small areas to help other satellites more easily reach potential targets; the growing military engagement in Southeast Asia increases the need for better photographs of this largely unknown part of the planet. The first operational defense meteorological satellites are created inside Program 417. The experiments last for a while, just like the testing of equipment, so 1962. small Scout a rocket loads a mass of 20 kg into an elliptical orbit. Following are several experimental flights with new cameras and sensor systems, and the first meteorological satellite (METSÄTELI) of the RCA company will launch 19. January 1965, on top Thor Altair carrier. Using the fourth stage of the Scout missile as the last part of the classic Thor missile, the burden loaded with the 471 perigee and the 822 km apogee is beneficial.

In the following months 15 launched them four more, and then replaces the model block IVA (also made in RCA). Until then, it is quite clear the necessity of using and the role of meteorological orbital aircraft. Since the first flight, namely January 1965, Polar Paths have been used for this purpose, synchronized with Sun. Block IVA satellites have a mass of about 82 kg, and by rotation they are stabilized in orbit - namely rotation around the longitudinal axis is made like a gyroscope to hold position. On the hull of the aircraft there are photovoltaic cells for generating electricity. Thor Burner II carries a total of four satellites of this series, all in the 13 monthly period started September 1966. It inherits them Block IVB, a series of three aircraft launched between May 1966. and July 1969. From the first model, they differed with the fact that besides the two cameras they also carried infrared sensors, needed to determine the temperature changes in the atmosphere. This data added a new dimension to observing weather changes, which has revolutionized meteorological forecasting technology for the next decade.

The series followed Block 5, with three satellites launched from the Vandenberg base with the same carrier as the predecessor. These floating platforms are stabilized at a certain height, controlled by a new digital control system. In addition, the Block 5A satellites have worn new scanning line cameras instead of the vista, in the visible and infrared spectrum. Under the end of 1971. a new model is coming, Block 5B / C. By the year 1976. launched seven such models. Due to the growing demand for more accurate and more frequent sending data improved the system for direct communication with Earth, so that headquarters units and warships began to receive information that only a few years ago it was impossible to even imagine. At the satellites are placed additional sensor systems, including temperature probes and cameras that work in infrared. Of course, ťobičneŤ cameras with high and especially high resolution is always present.

Strategic Air Command (Strategic Air Command, SAC) starts 1976. equip your 4000. (4000th Aerospace Application Unit) to work with the highly-enhanced capabilities of the series Block 5D. The World Meteorological Center of the Air Force (Air Force Weather Service Global Weather Central) handles large data Univac electronic computers. Analyzed photos are sent to earth stations in the United States and abroad, from where they arrive to special military and aerospace vehicles, and to aircraft and other vessels. The 5D series was considerably improved with other existing meteorological satellites. Thanks to her for the first time in history, commanders on the battlefield could get the most recent photo of the battlefield. This basically means that distant combat units can call on the Block 5D satellite over them to find the area information they are in, so even in the case of complete separation from the mainstream forces, they can easily determine further steps. Previously photos could only be obtained from large data processing centers. In this example, there are clear changes in global war-time changes, as even smaller units commanders expect autonomy in strategy planning, up to tactical levels.

In the 5D series we distinguish two models; Block 5D-1 the 1981. replaced by performing Block 5D-2, where this second one is practically the same in terms of structure, but larger dimensions and better traits. Between 1976. and 1980. it has five Block 5D-1 satellites. Each of them consisted of three main components. At the rear there is a rocket launcher in the orbit, with several smaller hydraulic maneuver engines holding the aircraft's position toward the Earth. There are, in addition, all other necessary control devices. The engine is equipped with an auxiliary module with most electronic control systems and intercommunication of the individual components of the system, and with the "electric control unit" and the "control panel". The special platform at the front carries sensors, custom made for each mission, and precision devices for controlling the position of the satellite. The shadow on the top of the aircraft is a shadow that protects sensitive instruments from unwanted light. The 9,3 Square Meter with Photovoltaic Cells of the Total Average Power of 290 Vata is fixed to the rear of the unit; The 5D-2 model had a quarter of a larger floor area because the equipment consumed a little more electricity. The satellite carrier is a missile Burner II on solid fuel, so in the orbit other than the satellite one part of it is coming. When launching, where the missile is used as the first stage Thor, the second weight and satellite common mass is 2700 kg (2900 kg in the 5D-2 model). After the fuel is consumed, the weight of the 480 kg bodyweight remains at 5D-2 to 770 kg, and 180 kg (270 kg) remains on the sensors and the camera. In its working form, the satellite is long about 3,8 m, diameter 2,3 m. The heart of the system is a scanner that works in the visible and infrared part of the spectrum. This piece of equipment is produced by Westighouse's Defense and Electronic Systems Center, and is used in some other civilian meteorological satellites. Captured photos are sent directly to Earth or stored for later transmission. The resolution is 2,7 km, and for some users less than 600 m. The Moonlight is light enough to shoot, while in the infrared field it is still day or night. The scanner is a fully autonomous device so units separated from the bulk of the power to work only need a special vehicle for communication with the satellite. Data sent to US account centers is available to the Strategic Air Force bombers, so flight plans are made according to current weather conditions. Because of the ease of navigator tasks, the World Meteorological Center for Air Force processing in Univoc computers for 20 seconds turns the polar stereographic projection into Merkator's. In contrast, the image print device, the mechanical device, needs to print the image for two minutes! The most important consumer of information from the Center is certainly the Strategic Air Force command line, where the big planets see the current state of the atmosphere of our planet. Several printers will make a copy for the interested personnel upon request.

The Geometry Trail Block 5D allows you to work with two satellites. One of them crosses the equator in 6 hours and 30 minutes in local time and collects meteorological data for planing morning tasks from base aircraft in this area, providing field commanders with the information needed to determine the daily strategy of upcoming actions. The second satellite crosses the equator at local noon and sends data on changes in atmospheric conditions over the past five and a half hours. The path that has these properties is inclined to 98,7 degrees toward the equator, it is synchronized with the Sun, almost entirely circular 830 km above Earth, with a time of 101 minute.

All commands satellite pointing over his computer, capable of processing every second 16000 character information or 28000 in the case of the 5D-2. This ťzapovjedni centarŤ spacecraft begins work in the moment of the launch tower, and is responsible for bringing the satellite into proper orbit. About sending meteorological data also takes care of himself, and of terrestrial radar station only receives data on the daily changes of parameters orbit. But managing the computer can be reprogrammed from Earth, which is used for the rescue of one of the satellites after failure shortly after take-off.

The 5D series has as many as six ground-based landing channels, five of which are used to send satellite data (two of them are used only for control data and telemetry information), and the last six, the aircraft receives commands from the Earth. The command center is located on an air base Offutt, Nebraska, the headquarters of the World Meteorological Center for Air Force USA. The satellite commands are sent over the base Loring in Mainu, i Fairchild in Washington. Meteorological and telemetry data coming even from cells Kaena in Hawaii, and other communication satellites are used to establish connections to the aircraft, as well as those and between the Earth stations.

It is, in fact, on a worldwide network made up of parts in space and on Earth, aimed at collecting the most accurate data on changes in the atmosphere. Information from satellites series Block 5D more complex than ever before are, in other words, to use a very complex instruments and a wide range of sensors. With the scanners that operate in the visible and infrared spectrum, satellites carry several different ťpaketaŤ equipment. One of them includes the infrared scanning radiometer, which those skilled in the earth gives information on the quantity of water vapor in a given column of air. It also determines the amount of ozone in the atmosphere. There is a passive microwave probe, and a sensor for measuring the millimeter radiation atmosphere means of which the image of the temperature state to a height of tread planet 30 km. The device for determining the density of the atmosphere observed satellites horizon (ie the edge of the Earth), and measurement of ultraviolet radiation provides users information on ingredients of air, for example nitrogen and oxygen. One sensor controls the amount of electrons and ions on the side facing the satellites of the Earth, while others measure the same data on the side facing the planet. Probe determines the ionospheric effect on ion propagation. The seventh device, which delivers air force, measure gamma radiation typical of a nuclear explosion. One of the satellites launched 1979. The bore is a test sensor to find clouds with snow, indicating whether they can be distinguished from other instruments.

All the time you stay on the road, the satellite keeps the exact position. During the tour of the planet, he turns around the axis just once, so he always looks toward the Earth with the same side. After launching from the base Vandenberg the aircraft crosses Antarctica and then the Indian Ocean where the telemetry data station is located. The received information is sent to the Offutt base immediately via the communication satellite. If in the meantime something unpredictable is happening, from the control center in the Indian Ocean, it will send orders to rectify the trajectory, and if everything goes according to plan, the satellite continues to fly and will soon begin work.

In mid-80, the US Meteorological Aviation Center will get even more accurate timing data, as satellites carry a new microwave sensor / camera (Special Sensor Microwave / Imager, SSM / I) created in the company Hughes. The SSM / I system shines through clouds and strong rain, thus collecting data about the movement and development of fast-moving events in the atmosphere. New devices are more efficient than the ones who worked in the infrared spectrum and said only the peaks of the clouds. These instruments, moreover, send information on the boundaries of the ice cover at the sea, determine its thickness and age, measure wind velocity over water, air humidity, amount of cloudy water and precipitation rate. The SSM / I device, apart from the World Meteorological Center, uses the Naval Numerical Oceanographic Center (US Navy's Fleet Numerical Oceanographic Center) In Monterey, California. The instrument consists of a parabolic dish size 61 66 cm times, this module containing electronic components. The satellite flies in a polar orbit synchronized with the Sun, 833 km above the Earth's surface. SSM / I sensor turns 31,6 times per minute, runs on four frequency bands, and a single pass covering the field width 1400 km. With the scanners to operate in the visible and infrared spectrum, this means a significant improvement of information about events in the Earth's atmosphere. Analysis of information which come with satellite series Block 5D provide the ability to predict the quality of radio shows, calculate the amount of water vapor in the air, but also provide an accurate picture of the contamination of the atmosphere. Meteorological military aircraft in peacetime state intelligence satellites to clean ťprozoreŤ for monitoring, programming their path towards developing weather situation. During the war, their role is also very important, because of atmospheric changes depend tactical operations.

If they are in the area with a strong wind, the units can be much closer to the zone of nuclear attack without too much danger of increased radiation, while the polluted territory down the wind will be greatly expanded. In this way, maps with marked hazardous locations are quickly created. On the other hand, the same meteorological data can be used to plan an atomic attack that will cause the enemy maximum losses. But all this is true of relatively small nuclear heads, comparable to bombs that fell on Hiroshima, which serve as tactical support. Greater nuclear waste will create large polluted areas. Meteorological satellites will show the effects of an explosion in a period of several days. In spite of all this, they are of the utmost benefit to tactical strikes because they provide accurate and concise information necessary for each attack involving an aviation. If an infected party uses a biological weapon, the satellites will detect and point to safe areas.

Block 5D satellites have great possibilities of storing data. The basic model is saved to tape 20 minutes of information, and on the version 5D-2 that has tripled capacity for large image resolution, and is even 20 hours for data little discernment. Commanders of units receive photos of the terrain wide 2963, and long over 7400 km. The primary benefit of 5D model has long service life, and that is the basic variant 18 months, while newer 5D 2-orbiting satellites remain over three years. Precisely in this attribute Soviet military meteorological spacecraft are lagging far behind, and all their program designed to entirely different grounds.

The first experimental American Tiros series replaces the series Nimbus aircraft that have for some time been in orbit together with the first type. Although built on the basis Block 5D model last, the second generation spacecraft Tiros fully serving civilian programs, replacing the first generation launched between 1960. and 1965, models Essa who went from 1966 to the track. to 1969, and to aircraft itos launched by 1970. to 1976.

But we will not mention them because they have nothing to do with our story. Just say yes Today, with all meteorological satellite systems in the United States, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Nooa). In addition to two civil satellites in the geostationary orbit (constellation GEOS) and two civil satellites in a polar orbit (constellation PEOs) manages two more military satellites from the defense meteorological satellites program (Defense Meteorogical Satellite Program, DMSP). The current third generation of satellites has a label DMSP Block 5D-3. Satellites are watching the earth's atmospheric, oceanographic and solar-geophysical environment. Around Earth orbit by a polar, Sun synchronous orbit with inclination 98 ° on the nominal amount of 830 km, with a period of 101 minutes. The two satellites together every 6 hours refresh the image of weather conditions over a specific area of ​​the earth's surface. Their central part of the sensor is linear perception, which provides continuous monitoring of the cloud (and also areas covered by water or snow, and areas of fire and pollution) in 3000 km wide belt, in the visible and infrared spectrum with a resolution 500 meters. Other sensors provide measurements of atmospheric vertical profiles of humidity and temperature, water courses, surface water status, ice and snow, and the value of ionized particles and electromagnetic fields. The latter features are essential for forecasting the impact of the ionosphere on the long-range communication, the effect of radar early warning against ballistic missile attacks, forecasting polar lights and the impact of the space environment on the functioning of military satellites. Recent satellite launch program DMSP was in February 2002. years.

As for the Soviet meteorological satellites, the first preliminary tests, using the equipment launched next to other aircraft, started with five flights between 1963. and 1965. years. From 1966. to 1968. in the orbit with a gradient of 65 or 81 degree, prototypes of satellites arrive. cosmos 122, Whose take-off attended by French President de Gaulle, takes off 25. June 1966, the first prototype of the series. He was carrying a TV camera for observing clouds and infrared sensors for day and night collecting data in three spectral bands. The satellite was long 5, 1,5 m wide, mass 2 tone and flew 600 km above the Earth. Unlike American spacecraft spin stabilized around the longest axis, the rotation is stabilized around all three axes. A few months later with the launch tower place tjuren Tama takes off her successor, cosmos 144. These satellites, as published by the Soviet Union, test, as well as a few others launched later.

In April 1969, 11 full and half years after Sputnik 1, takes off Meteor-1, the first Soviet operational meteorological system. Masses of almost 2,2 tons, aircraft of this class shoot TV cameras with 1000 km, or 25000 km, in the case of infrared scanners. Depending on the task, the aircraft carry a lot of additional equipment, and some of them can communicate directly with users on Earth. Part of the instruments is used to determine the balance of ice and water in the clouds, while the second measures the temperature of a particular column of the atmosphere. In July 1975. a modified model Meteor-2 with multispectral sensors similar to those used by the United States Geological Research. In fact, the function of Meteor satellites is more scientific than directly related to military purposes. But as the Soviets do not have an electronic technology that can be found in US military aircraft, meteorological, Meteors may serve the needs of the Army. In the Soviet Union, then there were three receiving earth stations. One was in Novosibirsk, and the other in Khabarovsk. Although they communicate directly with satellites, data in the Soviet Hydrometeorological Center near Moscow can not send microwaves, but they use radio. The third station in Obninsk, microwave is associated with Moscow. The lack of such ties in the first two cases means a great distance from the time of arrival data from satellites and processing in the Hydrometeorological Center. That is why the spacecraft Meteor-2 have the option of direct communication with moving vehicles on the ground. To shorten the time needed for connection, all data prior to transmission to Earth are recorded to tape and sent in one burst.

Since its inception, the system has been significantly improved and has a longer service life. For the first time, from 1977, six satellites were launched annually, and later this number was significantly reduced. It is interesting to note that the Soviets have not yet set up any meteorological satellites in the geostationary trajectory so far, because of the direct view of the vast area of ​​land, it is of crucial importance for studying large time systems over central Asia (the reader will recall that the aircraft is idle over a point the equator when 36 is located thousands of kilometers above the Earth).

The quality of photos Meteor satellites is approximately equal to those of the Block IV spacecraft, although somewhat broader format of the US. Meteors also send information to ships and small receiving stations on land. Transmission of meteorological information is certainly one of the more dovish function satellites for communication over long distances. In any case, it can be said that the set photos from meteorological satellites can compensate for the loss of connection commanders of combat units with headquarters. But all the military forces depend on the receipt and delivery of various information and data, and to best serve the communication satellites, appropriately protected from hostile interference.

The third generation of satellites is now in use Meteor-3 and improved version Meteor-3M. Satellite Meteor-3M was launched in December 2001. year in the solar synchronous, almost polar orbit, at 1000 km and incidence of 99,6 °. Satellites have surface and cloud observation sensors in the visible and infrared spectrum, sensors for visibility measurement of bandwidths, surface temperature measurement and determination of vertical temperature and humidity profiles. The estimated lifetime of the satellite is 3 years.

Tyros-1 1.4.1960 launch. years
Vostok
Vostok
Vostok
Vostok
Tiros-1
Tiros-1
Tiros-1
Tiros-1
Tiros-1
Tiros-1
Tiros-1
Tiros-1
Tyrosyl-N
Tyrosyl-N
Tyrosyl-N
Tyrosyl-N
DMSP
DMSP Block 5D-3
NOAA