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SATELLITES FOR EARLY WARNING
John DeWitt Jr.
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SATELLITES FOR EARLY WARNING

It seemed to me that it would be possible to send the ultralight waves to the moon and note their reflection. If this were feasible, it would be easier to explore the upper layers of the atmosphere. Furthermore, unlocked telecommunications capabilities would be opened. These were the thoughts of 1940. in his diary recorded astronomer amateur John DeWitt Jr.. It did not take long for the young engineer to move from words to deeds. But the first attempt to detect reflected waves from the Moon using the 138-MHz transceiver, which he himself constructed while working on a WGN radio in Chicago, failed. Five years later, DeWitt realized his idea, extending the boundaries of science to the unknown depths of the universe. With this venture, he has always entered the history of radio and telecommunications. During II. World War II Colonel DeWitt is in Evans Signal Laboratory in Belmar, New Jersey, worked on developing radar systems. It was extremely successful, and celebrated with the development of a special radar destined to locate enemy mortars and direct the artillery fire.

But the Americans have taken other worries. At the end of II. World War I Germans began mass production of their secret weapon, named Vergeltungswaffe 2 (gun 2) or shortened V-2 missile. During the war, about 1000 of such rockets fell to the area of ​​Great Britain, from which even 660 to London. What was worrying was that these terrible missiles reached the altitude and over 100 km. Before German scientists succeeded in perfecting the V-2 missiles and further increasing their altitude, Germany capitulated. Soon after, he capitulated and set up Japan. However, the Cold War division began to emerge among the adventurous allies. Broadcasting of radio signals far beyond Earth's surface as early detection of enemy missiles has become one of the most important US military priorities. Therefore, in September 1945., When DeWitt and his associates expected the demobilization process, the US Department of Defense ordered the "Dijana Project". The project was named after the Roman goddess of the hunt, only this time, with the prey of a beautiful goddess instead of wild beasts, had to be an enemy missile. The goal of the project was to send signals to the moon and catch their echoes. If the radio waves reflected from the Moon were successfully detected, it would be technically possible to make the earthly system of early warning to unknown objects above the American sky. The idea was similar to the Strategic Defensive Initiative, popularly called Star Wars, which was approved by President Reagan some thirty years later. And here's the goal of establishing a defense system (this time satellite) that would protect the USA from the so-called. first strike of nuclear missiles and hostile satellites.

In the experiment of signal broadcasting on the Moon, well-known radar techniques were used, but with totally different systemic constants. Preliminary calculations that take into account the power of the transmitter, the reflection coefficient of the target, (Moon), receiver noise, etc., showed that DeWitt's idea was technically feasible. It was also found that the experiment that DeWitt did before the war failed because of the low sensitivity of the receiver used then. From the known distance of Earth's Moon (s = 384400 km), and the velocities of electromagnetic wave propagation (c = 300000 kmh-1), the simple formula t = 2s / c is calculated to send the signal to the Moon and back around 2,5 seconds. Of course, it was a definitive simplification of the actual physical situation because no Doppler effect was taken into account. 180 signals are emitted in 0.2 seconds. Each signal had the power of 3 kW, while the echo had only 10-15 W power. Finally, 10. January 1946. the receiver around which the excited team got together had finally recovered, catching the radar signals from the lunar surface. Detected signals could be heard, but they were also visible on the radar display. It was the ultimate proof that electromagnetic waves could penetrate through the earth's ionosphere.

After these experiments were confirmed by independent researchers, Time Magazine announced: "Man finally got out of his planet!" Interestingly, it is somehow at the same time (so 1945 is the British) Arthur Clarke, one of the cult writers of science fiction, has published the idea of ​​the communication satellites in the geostationary orbit. Namely, three-satellite broadcasts on the 120 ° spaced path can cover the entire inhabited area of ​​the Earth. On that path, which is in the plane of the Earth's equator, the satellites would move from west to east at an altitude of about 35900 km, with the angular velocity of the satellite being equal to the angular velocity of the equator point below the satellite. DeWitt's success was a decade later that enabled the practical implementation of these Clarke's ideas. After the "Project Dijana" was successfully completed, DeWitt returned to Nashville, Tennessee, where he founded the first radio station. In those days, the popularity of the radio program reached its unprecedented peak, which was the year 1986. forever also Woody Allen in his nostalgic film Radio Days. Expanding the network of radio transmitters DeWitt helped break the monotony of everyday life in thousands of homes in the American province. Soon, the WSM radio station and TV stations are called WSMV-TV. In the early sixties, the first WSMV-TV in North America began broadcasting, almost in real time, satellite weather recordings. Technical problems about receiving the image from the government meteorological satellite and this time resolved DeWitt. John De Witt, died in 92. on Monday 25, January 1999. in her home in Nashville. He also paid tribute to CNN, who, thanks to a large part of DeWitt's heritage, is nowadays lurking in all the corners of our planet.

Intercontinental ballistic missiles need around 30 minutes (submarine missiles only about 10 minutes) to hit their target. That is why it is of great importance that the missile is discovered already in its launch. Early warning satellites since the early 1960s, alongside the Early Warning Radar System, are the only effective component of protubalistic defense, the foundation of security in the United States and Russia, as they provide the most important source of information on possible ballistic missile attacks. First, experiments with early warning satellites were used to detect the radar. It has been shown that the detection of objects in the universe is a better infrared sensor. Early warning satellites are equipped with infrared optical devices that can detect the launch of a ballistic missile at large distances, based on the high amount of heat produced by a rocket engine.
MIDAS, SAMOS, DSP, SBIRS

Much before taking the last discoverer, the United States Air Force carries out several highly successful intelligence missions. It was a time when the fear of Soviet superiority in space technology merely called for deeper and bigger concerns about the weaker defense capabilities. America is increasingly dependent on the rapid gathering of information from the universe, as it could only ascertain how much the Soviet Union has advanced in the development of intercontinental ballistic missiles. This will confirm, or refute, then the opinion of intelligence experts in the US that the United States must rapidly begin to produce large ballistic intercontinental missiles.

In the case of a nuclear war, Earth radars would not keep the horizon for long, so reports of the launch of new enemy missiles and their goals had to be provided by early warning satellites. In October 1956, when Lockheed takes over the production of Agen carrier for use for various purposes, program WS-117L, which initiates projects of operational satellite intelligence satellites, already includes Midas aircraft for this very purpose.

Under the mark WS-117L (Weapon System 117L) US Air Force 1954. imagines the backbone of military space systems, the rocket level on the back of the Thor or Atlas projectiles being launched into space with various useful charges. Theories of what can be done in the universe are largely dependent on rocket experts, because at that time it is not yet clear how the satellites will reach the ground and what their main task will be; The main limit was the bearing capacity. A reliable rocket engine was, therefore, a basic precondition for successful satellite setup in different orbits.

October 1956. the missile manufacturer from the WS-117L project was selected. It was a famous aircraft factory and military equipment, Lockheed. A new rocket stage is called Agena A, and should serve as a carrier of intelligence, photographic and watch satellite. Two years before the launch of the first American artificial satellite, the Air Force has already moved well with plans for Agen A, a relatively small rocket level of just 6 meters. In order to use the Thor projectile as the first stage, the Thor-Agena assembly could move the mass of 200 kg in the trajectory. Powerful engines will raise useful payloads up to 700 kg, and replacing Agene with another, more recent, and rock climbing Thor, only six years after Explorera l, the load would already be 1200 kg.

Just two months after the launch of Sputnjika 1, funds allocated to the WS-117L project were increased four times, and by January, 1958. the entire space program is reviewed. Tasks are divided into three groups: Discoverer, project capsules for the return to Earth and technology advancement; Sentry, a project for collecting data by photographing; and Midas (Missile Defense Alarm System A project for the missile detection system), a project of orbital early warning system for the control of Soviet intercontinental ballistic missiles resulting from the need for a faster takeoff of the strategic bombardment fleet during the attacks from the Soviet Union or China. For Sentry and Midas programs, there was a gradual increase in the number of satellites to the final number of 24 satellites, while Discoverer in dozens of flights investigated technological difficulties. All satellites from these programs will be placed in a polar or very close path, from an air base Vandenberg in California. The first Discoverers were supposed to take off at the end of 1958, and they would follow Midas and Sentry in mid-1960s.

The encrypted name Sentry was soon changed to the now known tag Samos (Space and Missile Observation System) Space missile detection system. But before the development of the Midas and Samos system is fully completed, Discoverer will run its technological and conceptual plans. The aircraft will be used with the carrier Agena A, but with the capsule to return to Earth there will be some more experimental equipment and instruments. Discoverers are flying in polar trails, and they were just launched from the Vandenberg base on the west coast of the United States. The first satellite from this series was fired by 28. February 1958. It is also the first satellite to reach the Earth's trajectory from that point. Vandenberg does not miss out on Cape Canaveral either. On the contrary, he soon became the main rocket missile of the United States. Flights to a slope of more than about 50 degrees could not, of course, start from launching towers in Florida. The reason for this is that the rocket levels are dropped, which would then fall into the populated areas, which, of course, was forbidden from the first days. By entering the orbit the satellite must fly over the sea. And so Vandenberg became a rival to Cape Canaveral because only the polar trajectories could be reached by flying over the Pacific Ocean rather than the mainland. The base was also the seat of 1. missile division, whose main task was to check the combat readiness intercontinental missiles atlas. The launch of the satellite is just a matter of extra work, just like the staff of the East Testing Range at Cape Canaveral.

SAMOS

At the end of 1960, under the impression of unsuccessful Powers attempting to photograph secret Soviet military installations, contestants in the race to enter the White House, John F. Kennedy i Richard M. Nixon, they are inclined to support the program Samos. But what will be the legal consequences of all this? If the Soviets are fiercely fighting against spying eyes in the orbit of the Earth, it will inevitably lead to the ban on space flights at all, because the satellite in any way has to cross over some territory.

There was almost no legal precedent for such an appeal. Only the Chadian agreement from 1944, which the USSR was not a signatory, explicitly mentioned that the sovereign states have a full and exclusive right to oversee and use air space over their territory, but nothing has been said about the universe over it. When is the 1960 end. the Air Force prepared the launch Samosa 1 rocket Atlas-Agena A, the American military expert prevails: "Try, so you'll see". The upper level of the mentioned missile-carrier combination was the same as Discoverer. Basically this is the Intercontinental Ballistic Projectile Atlas located at the most powerful first level. Useful cargo was an integral part of Agena. While the typical Discoverer capsule, including Agen, had a mass of up to a maximum of 1150 kg, Samos had an 1900 kg in orbit. Much of it in both cases was, as mentioned, Agena. That is why Atlas was needed at launch Samos. These intelligence satellites in the orbit did not differ much from Discoverer, but the first models use a radio link to send photos to the earth station antennas, so they do not carry them back to Earth. Both ways have the advantage: in photos taken by radio, the time needed to lower and find the capsule has not been lost; in the second case, images with much more detail are obtained, because the radio transmission process is lost in discrepancy. Only a relative uncertainty in finding a capsule told airborne experts to use radio links. But both ways have been used in parallel for a number of years - direct transmission used to control larger areas of the planet, while photo capsules were used on satellites for 'close-ups'

And so the first world-wide operational satellite intelligence system began work at the 1960 end, with much concern for the possible Soviet response. Many believed that the USSR would harshly attack the "spy in the sky." There were, on the other hand, those who were convinced that this opportunity would be accepted by the other side to facilitate the check of the weapons and capabilities of runners. This could in any way be one of the most beautiful parts of the development of military satellite technology, because without such opportunities it is difficult to find a common language of talks about the restriction of strategic weapons.

But despite these obvious advantages, the intelligence satellites had a negative side, in the opinion of many insurmountable. General James M. Gavin announces the year 1958, when the United States launched the first satellite, that the efficient use of intercontinental ballistic missiles requires accurate and timely notification, which can be achieved only by using satellites. This statement, quite obviously, was very ambiguous and easily adapted to the needs. One was for sure - the military presence in the universe was inevitable. This is clearly stated by the new US president, John F. Kennedy, less than a year after he entered the White House: "If the United States were to take advantage, they will be able to decide whether the new space will become the ocean of peace or the terrible stage of the war." To ensure supremacy, the United States must as much as possible to know about a potential enemy, so there is also time to launch Samos, a Western-style guard dog. The start could not be particularly successful. The first attempt to launch failed because Agena was scheduled, so the satellite did not hit the track. The other Samos arrived in the anticipated orbit of the 97,4 gradient to the equator. Over the next few weeks, enough information is available on the Earth to change the Pentagon's estimates of the size and scope of the USSR defense forces. The Soviets were angry. Not only because the carefully prepared plans for the West overturned into the water, but also because the Americans could suddenly know all about the secret activities that were not for their eyes. The empty threats and self-sacrifices were, during the fifties, the main weapon for the negotiating table. The curtain that the Soviets obviously wanted to overcome for a long time was no longer iron, but translucent paper.

"The United States has come into fashion a variety of fantastic stories," wrote Moskovska Pravda, "a large number of rockets," spooky "spy satellites, invulnerable submarines, and so on and so on ... This does not correspond to the facts because the authors of such stories are causing for loyal individuals who do not recognize missiles, spades, submarines and other technical equipment of the Soviet Union.Ť

The truth was quite different; The Soviet Union had much less strategic weapons to deter American attacks than it wanted to admit to the world. The price, all of which had to pay for this secrecy, was a heavily disturbed armament balance. In Kennedy's time, tension has almost escalated into conflict, when the Soviets tried to set missiles of sufficient magnitude to reach the Cub. The young US president establishes the Cuban blockade and threatens the war if the Soviet rocket ships do not return to the port. At that time, the USSR had only 80 intercontinental ballistic missiles, while the United States had more than four hundred of them - both onshore and on submarines. Besides, it was not necessary to forget about several hundred strategic nuclear bombs. Kennedy knew what he was doing; even though the world seemed to be on the verge of nuclear conflict, in reality it was not so, because it possessed information that was not for the public, with a good reason: it would reveal the main cause of the West, the new world intelligence network.

The Soviets then decided that such a situation should never be repeated again. Thus began the armament that in the end reached, and also respected, the military capabilities of the West. It was a great lesson about the strategic dominance of the world, something the Soviets would never forget. The consequences of just one successful Samos satellite flight at the beginning of 1961. influenced the plans to use space space for military purposes. But time has begun to change. Initial successes clearly demonstrated to supersilan how unreasonable it was to meet the public about the intelligence and watchdog role of satellites. And while the Soviet Union is launching a loud propaganda campaign on American "empireism," plans are being made in silence similar to those in the United States, using the same types of rockets that have brought the first cosmonauts to the Earth.

Both superstars have now worked speedily on expanding space intelligence programs to learn more about the intentions of the rival. By the end of 1961, US Air Force gets the first capsules E-6, in record time made in the drives General Electrica, and 22. In December of that year, the last rocket launcher Atlas-Agena B with satellite from the Samos series. Between the first and successful Samos flight, there were two failed attempts. From 1962. Samos are on the carriers Thor-Agena, first class "B", and in the second half of that year class "D". This model had even greater bearing capacity, but also the possibility of rebooting the engine, which meant that the satellite trajectory could be changed. The capsule was still firmly fixed on Ageni. By the end of 1962, 18 flights were made without any difficulties. Meanwhile, the first satellites arrive in the orbit close to the General Electric return capsule. The efficiency of the system has been proven by catching Discoverer 13, in August, 1960. These experimental satellites carried the Atlas-Agena B missiles in the universe, and the flights lasted for a few days at best. During the first year of use, 1962, there were six launches, and it seems that only one of them did not quite succeed because the satellite arrived at the top of the orbit. The last of the first generation of satellites for 'close close' came down with 11. November 1962, and everyone in the universe was only one day. That same year, the first generation of satellites for surveillance of large territories, those who broadcast images to the earth station antennas, were tested. But the same, 1962, the Air Force introduces the first generation of tapping satellites, in charge of capturing radio broadcasts in foreign countries, military communications, and radar signals of anti-aircraft missiles and missile missiles.

Up to the beginning of 1963. the second generation of intelligence satellites is planned, with more powerful rockets and more advanced equipment. With three additional rigid fuel engines, Thor was carrying more weight in the orbit. The first two unsuccessful launch attempts were made at the beginning of 1963, and in May it was a full success - the second generation of satellites to oversee major areas arrives. This type has remained in use until 1967, when it replaces new, much better features.

During 1963, 1964. and 1965, a total of 45 second generation satellites have been launched, which have thoroughly reviewed the Earth and provided detailed information on surface appearance in remote and remote areas of the planet, attributing the geoid of the actual trait. This is the latest application of ever greater importance, because the accuracy of strategic and tactical weapons is increasing. In order to improve the system of strategic intercontinental missiles in the United States, President Kennedy and his secretary of defense Robert McNamara.

By perfecting the Atlas and Titan 1 projectiles for firing heavy warheads on other continents, Titan 2, a missile with a new type of fuel that can be stored for a long time. Ballistic missiles will henceforth be hidden in a protective silos up to a few seconds before the launch when massive concrete doors are opened. The conviction that the Soviet Union at the end of the fifties and early sixties reached the United States in the production of intercontinental ballistic missiles, worried about the president's application of the new system, Minuteman solid fuel rockets, also located in protective silos.

The plan talked about at least a thousand such missiles stored in the middle east of the United States, each of which would take off in just a minute. Since they are much smaller than the previous models, the accuracy of targeting is of crucial importance. That's why they needed to know their exact position in relation to the launch site. The standard geographic maps did not satisfy the old, deliberately confusing Soviet specimens, replacing the first images from intelligence satellites - because their accuracy is not enough for missiles that most attempts arrive within 400 m from the goal. In the first half of the 1960s, cartographic work was brought to perfection, providing flight planers with accurate data on the necessary routes. But while the second generation of large area surveillance satellites looked for changes that pointed to larger surface (or less subsurface) interventions related to defense projects, they also went out of sight for close-ups. Their life span was always shorter than a week, and the height of the orbit descended to only 120 km.

MIDAS

The idea of ​​setting up infrared sensors on the satellite, which would make it easy to notice and track hot missile jets on the way to the United States, was not so easy to do in practice. Sensor system equipment Midas, created by the company International Telephone and Telegraph (ITT), sought to maintain a stable temperature of the aircraft because without that instruments simply can not work. In other words, a simple application meant a pretty engineering problem, especially when we recall how many first missiles could carry loads. That's precisely why the satellite quickly exceeded Agen's load capacity.

As the first stage of the carrier, the Atlas projectile was used, and after its rejection of Agena A, it was lifted up to 3.600 km. In this journey, the maximum for the said carrier and the two-way utility load, the satellite moves slowly from the horizon to the horizon, after which its role is taken over by the other. And so it continues in the chain of the 15 Midas aircraft that from the polar orbits observe whether missile territory will be fired missiles.

Initial experiments of sensor equipment and ground command centers were performed on satellites in the stationary path, while only polar operating models will be installed. The first flight should start with 26. February 1960, but the carrier exploded on the launch pad, so the US Air Force only succeeded in starting another program with the implementation of the program. Midas 2 it works well all day, and then the disturbances on the dispensers are ejected from the machine. It was just the beginning of disappointment because exploration of the Discoverer aircraft shows the main deficiencies of the Agena, which is why flights are interrupted until troubleshooting.

Next from the Midas launcher series will be leaving just a year later, July 1961, and the flight results are enough to moderate optimism about the entire concept of the program. Midas 4, launched three months later one of the first versions Titan carriers, is also successful, but in ideal circumstances when exactly what results are to be expected. Over the unknown territory and events, Midas still did not have too great looks for a successful performance of his task. For several months, scientists and engineers have intensively conducted experiments to improve satellite performance and somehow overcome the basic mistake: the inability to distinguish the hot gasses of the rocket jet and sunlight from the clouds.

At that time, defense programs began to be subjected to a veil of secrecy, just as the Soviets had always been working with their Cosmos aircrafts. Flights after this did not get their name, nor was their purpose discovered. But most of the works started under the thread 1961. on Early Alarm Systems is focused on finding solutions for reliable sensor sensor operation. In a complementary program with U-2 aircraft, equipped with similar sensors, the aviation has also advanced very slowly. And the time of spending large sums of money on exotic defense systems is slowly passing because the original Soviet missile prediction is replaced by more realistic numbers obtained through photos from intelligence satellites; the danger for the United States was far less than assumed.

Early alarm systems research falls into the frames 461 program. Almost no one believes in success. John R. Hubel, Assistant Secretary of Defense, tells the year 1962. about "technical difficulties and disappointments" that torture scientists and military experts. A year later Dr. Harold Brown, director of the Institute for Research and Development of the Ministry of Defense, testifies that at least half of the funds spent on the Midas program is a pure loss.

publicist Vernon Van Dyke 1963. it sums up the American space plans up to that moment, and gives an opinion that is shared by the majority now: "Even if such a system of early alertness had come, the question would be of any importance." And he goes on: "It would be really exceptional and extreme circumstances to justify the American nuclear countermeasure based on the information obtained from Midas satellites; the system shall in no case be considered as completely reliable. "

But despite all the pessimistic forecast theories talk about the practical ability to solve a few problems related to infrared sensors, so intensive research continues until the mid-sixties. The last two successful launches of Midas satellites took place in May and July 1963, and after the White House came to the end of the year the president Johnson supports continued work on the development of early warning systems. Three years later, two flights were made available Agena D rocket, with very similar Midas, and the result of a project that was considered feasible at that time. His mark was Program 266.

Conclusion 1966. renamed in Program 2012 which ultimately leads the development and production of prototype satellites with sensor equipment and flight scanners in the stationary path above the equator. The job was taken over by the company TRW. Prototype launches in August 1966, and in the next six years six test aircraft, some launched by Agena D, while others used a rocket intended for launching the operating system, Titan 3C, the only capable of delivering tons and a half load to the stationary orbit.

The US Air Force uses it Program 2012 for the development of the finite satellite equipment, has been delayed for a long time due to the difficult research required to achieve the quality that would secure the funding of the project. In the first phase, three aircraft will arrive in the stationary route, which will inform about the possible launches from the Soviet Union and China and the submarine; does the first successful show, phase 2 will include additional improvements. Only one satellite will be created for field tests and determination of operational properties phases 1.

Before examining the 647 series satellites, it is useful to consider the features of military satellites included in 1. It is a family of nuclear exploration aircraft, which will also say the surveillance of the atomic weapons usage and exploration agreement. Although the US Army and Air Force have been conducting core experiments since 1959, a manufacturing contract Sailing TRW only takes over 1961. In August 1963. The United States, the USSR and the United Kingdom sign a Partial Test Ban Treaty, and two months later the first pair of Vela ships flying into space. These satellites were launched with a carrier Atlas-Agena D, each had a mass of just 135 kg and were placed on the opposite side of the path between 100 and 135 thousands of miles above Earth. In this type of orbit, the highest used for defense purposes, the aircraft are lagging behind the planet's rotation, so the observer on the ground seems to travel in the opposite direction, though this is only an illusion created because the Earth is turning faster than the speed of the aircraft.

Each of the first series Vela satellites had a polyhedron form from 26 pages, of which 24 were photovoltaic cells for generating electricity. Two nickel-cadmium batteries supply the aircraft with electricity while in the earth's shadows, and maintain a constant voltage on the detectors. Orders sent from cells on the ground can also be stored for later use. The Vela series satellites carry complex and highly sensitive X- and gamma-ray detectors, and neutron-generated nuclear explosions. In the period of one year after launch, the work of the first pair exceeded all expectations and the project is considered to be the most successful in the short history of military aircraft. The first pilot model therefore counts only six planes launched with three missiles instead of the foreseen ten to five pairs.

General Ben I. Funk, the US space aviation aeronautics program manager, states that good properties associated with the scientific and technical readiness to move to the next phase of the program promise to shorten the trial period, and thus to save considerable resources. "Money is in this case well spent because two other pairs are not needed launch so fast, so TRW can continue to work on the second generation of Vela Satellites that will carry more powerful carriers Titan 3C. The improvements will be related to the control and command features, the aircraft will carry better and more sensitive detectors, and the lifetime will be significantly extended.

The second pair of Vela satellites of the first generation was launched in July by 1964, and the second in July by 1965. The initial planned life span of six months has been so prolonged that the computer is on a full decade of use. Reliability with which other aircraft from that time could not be measured, and the optimistic pole of engineers who knew they could produce quality equipment for work in the universe, contributed significantly to the progress of the program. In fact, success immediately brought the award in the form of accelerated plans for the development of the second generation model that will further track events on the planet with all-over-suppressed nuclear weapons.

In April, 1967, nearly two years after the launch of the last Vela satellites of the first generation, Titan 3C successfully expelled two improved aircraft. The first-generation satellite mass from the initial 135 increased to about 151 kg; processed models are twice as massive, and have 230 to 350 kg. They were a little different shape, improved control gear, and the axes rotated once per minute. The satellites carry the usual X- and gamma-ray detection equipment, neutron emissions, electromagnetic and optical sensors, backlight counters, and improved logic circuits to distinguish between natural and artificial radiation sources. And six other sailboats were extremely good. The second and third pair was launched in May, 1969, or April 1970. At this point, the development of artificial radiation detection satellites fits with the 647 Early Warning Program, as the launch of the Stage II flies away from the stationary trajectory. So it should have been, but the satellites of this series are so well made that using them is still 1979. in the area of ​​the South Atlantic, the perceived radiation that many experts interpreted in the nuclear tests of the South African republics. Let us recall that the second Velina generation had a predetermined life span of only one and a half years.

DSP

Extreme attempts to create an early warning system operating system under the auspices of the Assistant Defensive Program DSP (Defense Support Program) are finally beginning to show the first results, so 647 can fit the way it is. First TRW satellite launched 6. November 1970, but a breakdown on the bracket prevents the arrival of the selected trajectory. Experts still have some time to test the operation of the sensors and other equipment. TRW made the prototype for each case by operating standards, but it turned out to be unnecessary because the next flights were in May 1971. and March 1972. proved the successful operation of the system. Control of two 647 series satellites takes over 1972. Air and Space Space Control Command (Aerospace Defense Command). One of them was placed above the Indian Ocean to observe the Soviet or Chinese attacks on ballistic intercontinental missiles, and the second one above Panama was guarded by rocket-propelled Soviet submarines, who had a story closer to the North American land. It's been a long time, but the US Air Force finally had a satellite early warning system, a replacement for BMEWS radars set up as guards on the way across the polar regions. In the water it fell so that every advantage of the Soviet fOBS ťniskih putanja ť system.

The satellites in highways above the Earth will soon notice the ignition of the rocket engines of the intercontinental missiles, giving at least half an hour to the anti-aircraft decision. But is it so? Can infrared sensors discern a rocket jet of a large fire on an oil field? This question came first on the agenda at the end of 1975, but before that you need to say a few words about the features of new satellites. Each 647 series is made up of a second 3 hull and a wide 2,7 m with a large Schmidt telescope with detectors of lead-sulphide to detect the rocket missile of the projectile as it rises. The total height of the satellite is 4,3 m, its mass is about 1000 kg, and with the photovoltaic cells on the hull it also carries four black crystals to create electricity. The Schmidt telescope, named after an Estonian ophthalmor who perfected it more than half a century ago, eliminates spherical aberration which otherwise appears on similar instruments. Unlike ordinary telescopes in which the viewing angle is only a few short minutes, Schmidt is also good for the 10 to 20 diameter range. This is how it was created for an early alarm system where 2 thousands of infrared sensors are used for Earth Surface Surveillance. Dummy 3,6 m, with an aperture of 91 cm, the telescope is inclined to 7,5 degrees from the satellite axis. As the aircraft rotates five to seven times per minute, the telescope overflows the large area below it. Each element of the infrared detector is displayed on a diameter smaller than 3 km.

The exact position of the satellite is maintained by means of two side-light-protected sensors, directed to two glossy stars at an angle of about 90 degrees. The infrared detector detects radiation at wavelengths of about 2,7 micrometers. Nuclear radiation sensors are located on two of four solar cells with photovoltaic cells. Additional radiation detectors downloaded from Vela Satellites supplement this previously mentioned type.

The real measure of the efficiency of the early alarm system is measured by the time it takes to react to the attack, and the ability to differentiate between a natural event, projectile firing, or deliberate dazzling. American satellites observe 18. October 1975, and again 17. and 18. that same year, a thousand times stronger infrared radiation than usual in the launch of ballistic intercontinental missiles. The first event was the most important because of the older model of early warning satellites, developed under the umbrella Program 949 and set in the path of September 1970. The radiation was so strong that it immediately doubted the intentional Soviet dazzling of the aircraft. In the following months, he talked a lot about the matter, he wondered about different things, but the Soviets remained at the first explanation - that it was a great oil fire. But considering intelligence sources that spoke of intense experiments with chemical hydrogen fluoride lasers, most likely, however, they were about the first earth-test tests designed to destroy defensive satellites. The Early Warning System, located over the Indian Ocean, was not permanently blocked, but the fact that dazzling air from the Earth's surface had lasted for four hours was a cause of great concern, because the Soviet Union could easily begin uncontrolled nuclear attack under such a crash . The source of the observed radiation has never been reliable, the Soviet side refused any discussion, but the event showed in each case how reliable existing defense systems are.

By breaking down every possibility of sudden FOBS attacks, early warning satellites are gaining great popularity, but at the same time they are beginning to question their vulnerability. Such a fly is a fairly easy task to find. But in the absence of another solution plans for the satellite series are continuing phases 2, so the first of them will go to June 1973. years. It was an improved 647 series launcher launched in a stationary orbit carrier Titan 3C. Other aircraft are arriving in the orbit next year, and all that time engineers are trying to improve sensor devices to keep track of the missile for a long time. Namely, that was only possible in the first few minutes of flight, and this is precisely the major lack of 647 series satellites. By tracking infrared radiation, the rocket can only be tracked while the engine is running. However, he soon disappears into space and the satellite is no longer able to observe minor changes in the path caused by the short-term use of the maneuver jets. That is why the budget of the goose head could be very inaccurate. Therefore, so-called. Maneuver monitoring will be the basis of future generations of early warning aircraft. As for the Soviets, it seemed that this type of satellite had given less attention. But 647 series aircraft have seen launching more than 3 thousands of missiles and space missiles over the past fifteen years, so it's unrealistic to expect the Soviets to have something similar.

USA have 1970. ie the start of the DSP defense support program, the constellation of the 5 satellite in the geostationary orbit, each of which controls a certain area. Based on information from these satellites, it is possible to determine whether the heat source is moving (then it is a rocket) or is stationary (in the case of a fire, etc.). DSP satellites are designed for 24-hour surveillance over missile launch and nuclear explosions anywhere in the world. Three new satellites monitor high priority areas, while older satellites monitor less important areas. Within the DSP program, 21 satellite was launched, with various subsystems constantly improving, thus gradually improving its reliability, durability and durability. The DSP satellites are launched in the orbit by means of carrying missiles Titan III and IV, a satellite DSP-16 was shot in the orbit of the rocket Space Shuttle. Satellite Development DSP went to 5 phase.

First satellites DSP block 1 / phase 1 were launched in a geostationary orbit between 1970. and 1973. year, their mass was 900 kg, had a life span of 1,25 years and consumed 400 kW of energy. The sensors were of lead-sulphide from 2000 cells, each of which was monitored by 6 km2. The next phases were block 2 / phase 2 with 3 satellite between 1975. and 1977. year, and block 3 / MOS / PIM (Multi Orbit Satellite Perfomance Improvement Modification) with 4 satellite between 1979. and 1984. years. In phase block 4 / phase 2 upgrade 2 satellites were launched between 1984. and 1987. year, in phase block 5 / DSP-1 there was 1989. launched the 8 satellite. The satellites have improved at each stage so that the latest versions of the 5 / DSP-1 block have a mass of 2400 kg, the length of 10 is estimated to be 5 years of life, while their work requires 1,2 kW of energy. Block type satellite 5 uses 3,7 m long, 2,36 ton heavy infrared telescope with 92 cm diameter mirror, made of mercury-silver cadmium (telurid) with 6000 cells, each controlling the 3 km2 range. The infrared sensor differentiates the launch of most missiles and a large number of aircraft with additional combustion in flight. Satellite sensors work on two wavelengths of infrared spectrum, which enables better recognition of different heat sources, while reducing the possibility of complete blindness in the event of a laser attack. Year 1980. the DSP satellite was blinded by a major explosion on the Russian gas pipeline. The latest DSP version uses a strictly guarded additional IC sensor heritage. To 2003. the US will most likely launch another 2 satellite DSP-1. The DSP satellites also appeared in the 1991 Gulf War. when they discovered and followed the Iraqi tactical ballistic missile SCUD. The DSP system requires up to 2 minutes to confirm the launch of the missile and its intended trajectory. Data is sent differently terrestrial stations: on the island of Guam, two overseas land-based stations (OGS) in Australia and Europe (EGS), the continental US land post (CGS) and mobile land terminals (MGT). From these stations, the data is forwarded to the command NORAD and the US Space Command in Colorado. Each satellite has the ability to monitor virtually the entire semigrid earth in its field of vision (a third of the entire earth's surface) and can detect the launch of missiles from any location within its surveillance area. With system JTAGS (Joint Tactical Ground Station) American forces or their allies from 1997. anywhere and directly receive information from DSP satellites. JTAGS is also intended to work alongside tactical protubalistic systems, enabling rapid detection of attack directions. program Talon Shield / ALERT, of 1995. the American Space Command has greatly improved the integration and processing of raw data, derived from the overall constellation of DSP satellites. Shield and ALERT systems provide significant improvements in the accuracy of a description of detected events as well as faster data mediation to the final user. Both systems, JTAGS and ALERT, are still in the upgrade phase, so they can later receive information via the SBIRS satellite system.

SBIRS

The USA has DSP satellites within the SDI program intended to replace the satellite system BSTS (Boost Surveillance and Tracking System) i SSTS (Space Surveillance and Tracking System). The first would reveal the launch of the missile and their trajectory in the initial phase of the flight, followed by the SSTS satellites, and the rocket would be intercepted by space base interceptors (SBIs). The satellite program BSTS and SSTS was abolished with the Star Wars program, although, like other SDI projects, it continued under the program BMD (Ballistic Missile Defense). The satellite concept BSTS continued within the program Advanced Warning System and then Follow-on Early Warning System. The satellite development of SSTS has continued within the program Brilliant Eyes, and by abolishing this program the technology was transferred to the SBIRS low program. Many new technologies have been used to some extent in the new DSP satellite versions, but the need for completely new satellites, which would be able to actively participate in protubalistic defense, is US 1994. year DSPs have decided to replace satellites with satellites SBIRS (Space Based InfraRed System).

SBIRS will use two-dimensional planar infrared imagery technology instead of the current infrared field scanning technology to simultaneously monitor the whole hemisphere. New generation satellites SBIRS will be designed to alert fired missiles, track targets, and target weapons of protubalistic defense, gather technical intelligence, and increase view of battlefield situations. The SBIRS satellite system will consist of two parts - SBIRS high and SBIRS low. SBIRS high will be made up of four satellites, two in the geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and two satellites that will circulate in the highly elliptical orbit (HEO), thus completely controlling areas over the poles that are not visible from the geostationary orbits and yet another, the fifth satellite will be in reserve. The receiving earth observation stations will be made up of existing DSP ground surveillance stations, and some will be new. The same terrestrial stations will use all the SBIRS satellites (high and low). SBIRS high satellites will have a scanning infrared sensor for full area surveillance and a fixed sensor for precise detection and tracking of targets. SBIRS high will replace the DSP satellites, which will be removed in orbit for served satellites, and by plan the first to enter 2004. years. The value of the contract for the planning, development and development of the SBIRS high is $ 1,8 billion, and the expected labor costs up to 2020 years are $ 10 billion USD.

Technically far more demanding and revolutionary projects are satellites SBIRS low, the purpose of which will be to track missiles from firing to re-entry into the atmosphere, and collect the data from interception systems, and assist these systems with interception. When the SBIRS low component is fully operational, it will compile between twenty-thirty satellites in the low Earth's orbit, and will, together with the SBIRS high satellites, provide full control over the entire earth's surface. The primary task of SBIRS low is to provide precision rocket tracking in their intermediate phase and distinction from other similar objects (bait bait). Each satellite will have two infrared sensors - for searching and tracking. When the wide-field search sensor detects the launch of a missile engine at startup, it will transmit the information to the monitoring sensor, which has a narrow field of vision and high precision. The tracking sensor will follow the goal in its mid-stage flight to re-enter the atmosphere. At that time, the satellite processor will calculate the final missile path and the intended target, and will transmit the data to the interceptor batteries that will intercept the upcoming rocket, and each satellite will have the ability to monitor more targets. The entire constellation of the SBIRS low satellite will be interconnected to the grid, so each satellite can communicate with everyone else in the constellation. This will allow the satellite to trace the target to another satellite if the target leaves the area of ​​the first satellite control. The SBIRS low satellite data will provide much greater efficiency, both tactical and strategic ground interceptors. The SBIRS low will bridge the hole between the initial flicker detection and tracking of targets with earth's interrupt system radar. The development of the SBIRS low satellite follows many financial and technical difficulties as well as structural changes, resulting in large deviations from the anticipated time of production, and the operating system of the system is now foreseen for the second half of the decade.

OKO I PROGNOZ

The USSR has delayed the use of stationary orbits, as it has no major advantage over others. However, they are very likely to be communicative Molnija satellites, or scientific Elektron, worn sensors for some kind of early alarm. According to the West, two exploratory satellites Elektron launched 1964. besides the task of research they also carried out the task of early warning. A year later, the USSR set it in orbit communications satellites Molniya-1, for which they claimed in the West that their secondary task was early warning, but Russia never confirmed or denied these allegations.

Without any doubt, also, that name cosmos also provides early warning alarm satellites launched by Pleseck, although such suspicious flights from 1967. to 1975. there were only seven.

The first real Soviet satellite for early warning from the program US-KS Eye, 1972 was launched. year, under the label Kosmos 520. The satellite mass is about 1250 kg, height 1,3 m, and the telescope is long 2 m. The first satellite series, launched between 1976. and 1983. had a structural error, which caused a high degree of lost satellites - the satellites had broken out of orbit for unknown reasons. A decade later, Russian scientists admitted that the cause of the problem was an explosive charge fitted to the optical sensor, which would destroy the satellite in case of major failures. The fault in the self-destruction monitoring system caused premature, uncontrolled detonation during the normal operation of the satellite, and the last victim of this "friendly fire" was satellite Kosmos 1481 (later satellites around the eye worked without that system). Satellite Around Circles in High-elliptical orbit with period 12 hours. Thus, the satellite in the first daily ophod supervises the western coast of the United States, and in the other east. For full control of the Earth's surface program, the Eye needs a 9 satellite in constellation, which would allow every single 80 minute one satellite in each orbit to arrive in the apogee. Since the 1990s, the constellation of the satellite Oko operates with limited capabilities, as there are no funds to replace Satisfied Satellites. Year 2000. there are four more satellites that are possible (the Russian side states) to control the US, but they have no control over the rest of the world or submarine fires. US scholars contradict these allegations and claim that Russia with four satellites can control the United States only from 12 to 17 hours per day. Due to a fire in the Early Warning Center (located 35 km northeast of Serpuhk) in May 2001. The Russian space forces for some time, until the establishment of surveillance from the reserve command, remained unattended over the Oko satellites.

US-KS Eye

In the eighties three satellites were experimentally introduced into the geostationary orbit. Based on these experiments, the second generation of Soviet satellites for early warning systems was developed US-KMO Prognoz. Russia's first satellite Prognate launches 1991. year and up to 1994. was the establishment of the 4 satellite constellation. Unexpected Satellite Failure The forecast started with 1995. year with the failure of the first satellite, followed the breaks on two more satellites, so that it was the end of 1996. only one satellite worked. In the next two years, Russia has set two more satellites in the orbit, which have ended their life span after several months of work, the latest Prognoz (cosmos 2224) was released from use in May 1999. years. The cause of all these failures has not yet been clarified, but most likely it is a few construction errors. In August 2001. the new Prognoz satellite, probably due to the improved generation of these satellites, was launched in the orbit.

SERIES
SATELLITE NAME
DATE OF LANSING
AROUND
Kosmos 2340
9. April 1997.
Kosmos 2342
14. May 1997.
Kosmos 2351
7. May 1998.
Kosmos 2368
27. December 1999.

Russian Early Warning Operational Sat Nav View (data from July 2001)