Much before taking the last discoverer, the United States Air Force carries out several highly successful intelligence missions. It was a time when the fear of Soviet superiority in space technology merely called for deeper and bigger concerns about the weaker defense capabilities. America is increasingly dependent on the rapid gathering of information from the universe, as it could only ascertain how much the Soviet Union has advanced in the development of intercontinental ballistic missiles. This will confirm, or refute, then the opinion of intelligence experts in the US that the United States must rapidly begin to produce large ballistic intercontinental missiles.
In the case of a nuclear war, Earth radars would not keep the horizon for long, so reports of the launch of new enemy missiles and their goals had to be provided by early warning satellites. In October 1956, when Lockheed takes over the production of Agen carrier for use for various purposes, program WS-117L, which initiates projects of operational satellite intelligence satellites, already includes Midas aircraft for this very purpose.
Under the mark WS-117L (Weapon System 117L)
US Air Force 1954. imagines the backbone of military space systems, the rocket level on the back of the Thor or Atlas projectiles being launched into space with various useful charges. Theories of what can be done in the universe are largely dependent on rocket experts, because at that time it is not yet clear how the satellites will reach the ground and what their main task will be; The main limit was the bearing capacity. A reliable rocket engine was, therefore, a basic precondition for successful satellite setup in different orbits.
October 1956. the missile manufacturer from the WS-117L project was selected. It was a famous aircraft factory and military equipment, Lockheed. A new rocket stage is called Agena A, and should serve as a carrier of intelligence, photographic and watch satellite. Two years before the launch of the first American artificial satellite, the Air Force has already moved well with plans for Agen A, a relatively small rocket level of just 6 meters. In order to use the Thor projectile as the first stage, the Thor-Agena assembly could move the mass of 200 kg in the trajectory. Powerful engines will raise useful payloads up to 700 kg, and replacing Agene with another, more recent, and rock climbing Thor, only six years after Explorera l, the load would already be 1200 kg.
Just two months after the launch of Sputnjika 1, funds allocated to the WS-117L project were increased four times, and by January, 1958. the entire space program is reviewed. Tasks are divided into three groups: Discoverer, project capsules for the return to Earth and technology advancement; Sentry, a project for collecting data by photographing; and Midas
(Missile Defense Alarm System
A project for the missile detection system), a project of orbital early warning system for the control of Soviet intercontinental ballistic missiles resulting from the need for a faster takeoff of the strategic bombardment fleet during the attacks from the Soviet Union or China. For Sentry and Midas programs, there was a gradual increase in the number of satellites to the final number of 24 satellites, while Discoverer in dozens of flights investigated technological difficulties. All satellites from these programs will be placed in a polar or very close path, from an air base Vandenberg
in California. The first Discoverers were supposed to take off at the end of 1958, and they would follow Midas and Sentry in mid-1960s.
The encrypted name Sentry was soon changed to the now known tag
Samos (Space and Missile Observation System) Space missile detection system. But before the development of the Midas and Samos system is fully completed, Discoverer will run its technological and conceptual plans. The aircraft will be used with the carrier Agena A, but with the capsule to return to Earth there will be some more experimental equipment and instruments. Discoverers are flying in polar trails, and they were just launched from the Vandenberg base on the west coast of the United States. The first satellite from this series was fired by 28. February 1958. It is also the first satellite to reach the Earth's trajectory from that point. Vandenberg does not miss out on Cape Canaveral either. On the contrary, he soon became the main rocket missile of the United States. Flights to a slope of more than about 50 degrees could not, of course, start from launching towers in Florida. The reason for this is that the rocket levels are dropped, which would then fall into the populated areas, which, of course, was forbidden from the first days. By entering the orbit the satellite must fly over the sea. And so Vandenberg became a rival to Cape Canaveral because only the polar trajectories could be reached by flying over the Pacific Ocean rather than the mainland. The base was also the seat of 1. missile division, whose main task was to check the combat readiness intercontinental missiles atlas. The launch of the satellite is just a matter of extra work, just like the staff of the East Testing Range at Cape Canaveral.
At the end of 1960, under the impression of unsuccessful Powers attempting to photograph secret Soviet military installations, contestants in the race to enter the White House, John F. Kennedy
i Richard M. Nixon, they are inclined to support the program Samos. But what will be the legal consequences of all this? If the Soviets are fiercely fighting against spying eyes in the orbit of the Earth, it will inevitably lead to the ban on space flights at all, because the satellite in any way has to cross over some territory.
There was almost no legal precedent for such an appeal. Only the Chadian agreement from 1944, which the USSR was not a signatory, explicitly mentioned that the sovereign states have a full and exclusive right to oversee and use air space over their territory, but nothing has been said about the universe over it. When is the 1960 end. the Air Force prepared the launch Samosa 1 rocket
Atlas-Agena A, the American military expert prevails: "Try, so you'll see". The upper level of the mentioned missile-carrier combination was the same as Discoverer. Basically this is the Intercontinental Ballistic Projectile Atlas located at the most powerful first level. Useful cargo was an integral part of Agena. While the typical Discoverer capsule, including Agen, had a mass of up to a maximum of 1150 kg, Samos had an 1900 kg in orbit. Much of it in both cases was, as mentioned, Agena. That is why Atlas was needed at launch Samos. These intelligence satellites in the orbit did not differ much from Discoverer, but the first models use a radio link to send photos to the earth station antennas, so they do not carry them back to Earth. Both ways have the advantage: in photos taken by radio, the time needed to lower and find the capsule has not been lost; in the second case, images with much more detail are obtained, because the radio transmission process is lost in discrepancy. Only a relative uncertainty in finding a capsule told airborne experts to use radio links. But both ways have been used in parallel for a number of years - direct transmission used to control larger areas of the planet, while photo capsules were used on satellites for 'close-ups'
And so the first world-wide operational satellite intelligence system began work at the 1960 end, with much concern for the possible Soviet response. Many believed that the USSR would harshly attack the "spy in the sky." There were, on the other hand, those who were convinced that this opportunity would be accepted by the other side to facilitate the check of the weapons and capabilities of runners. This could in any way be one of the most beautiful parts of the development of military satellite technology, because without such opportunities it is difficult to find a common language of talks about the restriction of strategic weapons.
But despite these obvious advantages, the intelligence satellites had a negative side, in the opinion of many insurmountable. General James M. Gavin announces the year 1958, when the United States launched the first satellite, that the efficient use of intercontinental ballistic missiles requires accurate and timely notification, which can be achieved only by using satellites. This statement, quite obviously, was very ambiguous and easily adapted to the needs. One was for sure - the military presence in the universe was inevitable. This is clearly stated by the new US president, John F. Kennedy, less than a year after he entered the White House: "If the United States were to take advantage, they will be able to decide whether the new space will become the ocean of peace or the terrible stage of the war." To ensure supremacy, the United States must as much as possible to know about a potential enemy, so there is also time to launch Samos, a Western-style guard dog. The start could not be particularly successful. The first attempt to launch failed because Agena was scheduled, so the satellite did not hit the track. The other Samos arrived in the anticipated orbit of the 97,4 gradient to the equator. Over the next few weeks, enough information is available on the Earth to change the Pentagon's estimates of the size and scope of the USSR defense forces. The Soviets were angry. Not only because the carefully prepared plans for the West overturned into the water, but also because the Americans could suddenly know all about the secret activities that were not for their eyes. The empty threats and self-sacrifices were, during the fifties, the main weapon for the negotiating table. The curtain that the Soviets obviously wanted to overcome for a long time was no longer iron, but translucent paper.
"The United States has come into fashion a variety of fantastic stories," wrote Moskovska Pravda, "a large number of rockets," spooky "spy satellites, invulnerable submarines, and so on and so on ... This does not correspond to the facts because the authors of such stories are causing for loyal individuals who do not recognize missiles, spades, submarines and other technical equipment of the Soviet Union.Ť
The truth was quite different; The Soviet Union had much less strategic weapons to deter American attacks than it wanted to admit to the world. The price, all of which had to pay for this secrecy, was a heavily disturbed armament balance. In Kennedy's time, tension has almost escalated into conflict, when the Soviets tried to set missiles of sufficient magnitude to reach the Cub. The young US president establishes the Cuban blockade and threatens the war if the Soviet rocket ships do not return to the port. At that time, the USSR had only 80 intercontinental ballistic missiles, while the United States had more than four hundred of them - both onshore and on submarines. Besides, it was not necessary to forget about several hundred strategic nuclear bombs. Kennedy knew what he was doing; even though the world seemed to be on the verge of nuclear conflict, in reality it was not so, because it possessed information that was not for the public, with a good reason: it would reveal the main cause of the West, the new world intelligence network.
The Soviets then decided that such a situation should never be repeated again. Thus began the armament that in the end reached, and also respected, the military capabilities of the West. It was a great lesson about the strategic dominance of the world, something the Soviets would never forget. The consequences of just one successful Samos satellite flight at the beginning of 1961. influenced the plans to use space space for military purposes. But time has begun to change. Initial successes clearly demonstrated to supersilan how unreasonable it was to meet the public about the intelligence and watchdog role of satellites. And while the Soviet Union is launching a loud propaganda campaign on American "empireism," plans are being made in silence similar to those in the United States, using the same types of rockets that have brought the first cosmonauts to the Earth.
Both superstars have now worked speedily on expanding space intelligence programs to learn more about the intentions of the rival. By the end of 1961, US Air Force gets the first capsules E-6, in record time made in the drives General Electrica, and 22. In December of that year, the last rocket launcher
Atlas-Agena B with satellite from the Samos series. Between the first and successful Samos flight, there were two failed attempts. From 1962. Samos are on the carriers Thor-Agena, first class "B", and in the second half of that year class "D". This model had even greater bearing capacity, but also the possibility of rebooting the engine, which meant that the satellite trajectory could be changed. The capsule was still firmly fixed on Ageni. By the end of 1962, 18 flights were made without any difficulties. Meanwhile, the first satellites arrive in the orbit close to the General Electric return capsule. The efficiency of the system has been proven by catching Discoverer 13, in August, 1960. These experimental satellites carried the Atlas-Agena B missiles in the universe, and the flights lasted for a few days at best. During the first year of use, 1962, there were six launches, and it seems that only one of them did not quite succeed because the satellite arrived at the top of the orbit. The last of the first generation of satellites for 'close close' came down with 11. November 1962, and everyone in the universe was only one day. That same year, the first generation of satellites for surveillance of large territories, those who broadcast images to the earth station antennas, were tested. But the same, 1962, the Air Force introduces the first generation of tapping satellites, in charge of capturing radio broadcasts in foreign countries, military communications, and radar signals of anti-aircraft missiles and missile missiles.
Up to the beginning of 1963. the second generation of intelligence satellites is planned, with more powerful rockets and more advanced equipment. With three additional rigid fuel engines, Thor was carrying more weight in the orbit. The first two unsuccessful launch attempts were made at the beginning of 1963, and in May it was a full success - the second generation of satellites to oversee major areas arrives. This type has remained in use until 1967, when it replaces new, much better features.
During 1963, 1964. and 1965, a total of 45 second generation satellites have been launched, which have thoroughly reviewed the Earth and provided detailed information on surface appearance in remote and remote areas of the planet, attributing the geoid of the actual trait. This is the latest application of ever greater importance, because the accuracy of strategic and tactical weapons is increasing. In order to improve the system of strategic intercontinental missiles in the United States, President Kennedy and his secretary of defense Robert McNamara.
By perfecting the Atlas and Titan 1 projectiles for firing heavy warheads on other continents, Titan 2, a missile with a new type of fuel that can be stored for a long time. Ballistic missiles will henceforth be hidden in a protective silos up to a few seconds before the launch when massive concrete doors are opened. The conviction that the Soviet Union at the end of the fifties and early sixties reached the United States in the production of intercontinental ballistic missiles, worried about the president's application of the new system, Minuteman
solid fuel rockets, also located in protective silos.
The plan talked about at least a thousand such missiles stored in the middle east of the United States, each of which would take off in just a minute. Since they are much smaller than the previous models, the accuracy of targeting is of crucial importance. That's why they needed to know their exact position in relation to the launch site. The standard geographic maps did not satisfy the old, deliberately confusing Soviet specimens, replacing the first images from intelligence satellites - because their accuracy is not enough for missiles that most attempts arrive within 400 m from the goal. In the first half of the 1960s, cartographic work was brought to perfection, providing flight planers with accurate data on the necessary routes. But while the second generation of large area surveillance satellites looked for changes that pointed to larger surface (or less subsurface) interventions related to defense projects, they also went out of sight for close-ups. Their life span was always shorter than a week, and the height of the orbit descended to only 120 km.
The idea of setting up infrared sensors on the satellite, which would make it easy to notice and track hot missile jets on the way to the United States, was not so easy to do in practice. Sensor system equipment Midas, created by the company International Telephone and Telegraph (ITT), sought to maintain a stable temperature of the aircraft because without that instruments simply can not work. In other words, a simple application meant a pretty engineering problem, especially when we recall how many first missiles could carry loads. That's precisely why the satellite quickly exceeded Agen's load capacity.
As the first stage of the carrier, the Atlas projectile was used, and after its rejection of Agena A, it was lifted up to 3.600 km. In this journey, the maximum for the said carrier and the two-way utility load, the satellite moves slowly from the horizon to the horizon, after which its role is taken over by the other. And so it continues in the chain of the 15 Midas aircraft that from the polar orbits observe whether missile territory will be fired missiles.
Initial experiments of sensor equipment and ground command centers were performed on satellites in the stationary path, while only polar operating models will be installed. The first flight should start with 26. February 1960, but the carrier exploded on the launch pad, so the US Air Force only succeeded in starting another program with the implementation of the program. Midas 2 it works well all day, and then the disturbances on the dispensers are ejected from the machine. It was just the beginning of disappointment because exploration of the Discoverer aircraft shows the main deficiencies of the Agena, which is why flights are interrupted until troubleshooting.
Next from the Midas launcher series will be leaving just a year later, July 1961, and the flight results are enough to moderate optimism about the entire concept of the program. Midas 4, launched three months later one of the first versions Titan carriers, is also successful, but in ideal circumstances when exactly what results are to be expected. Over the unknown territory and events, Midas still did not have too great looks for a successful performance of his task. For several months, scientists and engineers have intensively conducted experiments to improve satellite performance and somehow overcome the basic mistake: the inability to distinguish the hot gasses of the rocket jet and sunlight from the clouds.
At that time, defense programs began to be subjected to a veil of secrecy, just as the Soviets had always been working with their Cosmos aircrafts. Flights after this did not get their name, nor was their purpose discovered. But most of the works started under the thread 1961. on Early Alarm Systems is focused on finding solutions for reliable sensor sensor operation. In a complementary program with U-2 aircraft, equipped with similar sensors, the aviation has also advanced very slowly. And the time of spending large sums of money on exotic defense systems is slowly passing because the original Soviet missile prediction is replaced by more realistic numbers obtained through photos from intelligence satellites; the danger for the United States was far less than assumed.
Early alarm systems research falls into the frames 461 program. Almost no one believes in success. John R. Hubel, Assistant Secretary of Defense, tells the year 1962. about "technical difficulties and disappointments" that torture scientists and military experts. A year later Dr. Harold Brown, director of the Institute for Research and Development of the Ministry of Defense, testifies that at least half of the funds spent on the Midas program is a pure loss.
Vernon Van Dyke 1963. it sums up the American space plans up to that moment, and gives an opinion that is shared by the majority now: "Even if such a system of early alertness had come, the question would be of any importance." And he goes on: "It would be really exceptional and extreme circumstances to justify the American nuclear countermeasure based on the information obtained from Midas satellites; the system shall in no case be considered as completely reliable. "
But despite all the pessimistic forecast theories talk about the practical ability to solve a few problems related to infrared sensors, so intensive research continues until the mid-sixties. The last two successful launches of Midas satellites took place in May and July 1963, and after the White House came to the end of the year the president Johnson
supports continued work on the development of early warning systems. Three years later, two flights were made available
Agena D rocket, with very similar Midas, and the result of a project that was considered feasible at that time. His mark was Program 266.
Conclusion 1966. renamed in Program 2012
which ultimately leads the development and production of prototype satellites with sensor equipment and flight scanners in the stationary path above the equator. The job was taken over by the company TRW. Prototype launches in August 1966, and in the next six years six test aircraft, some launched by Agena D, while others used a rocket intended for launching the operating system, Titan 3C, the only capable of delivering tons and a half load to the stationary orbit.
The US Air Force uses it Program 2012
for the development of the finite satellite equipment, has been delayed for a long time due to the difficult research required to achieve the quality that would secure the funding of the project. In the first phase, three aircraft will arrive in the stationary route, which will inform about the possible launches from the Soviet Union and China and the submarine; does the first successful show,
phase 2 will include additional improvements. Only one satellite will be created for field tests and determination of operational properties phases 1.
Before examining the 647 series satellites, it is useful to consider the features of military satellites included in 1. It is a family of nuclear exploration aircraft, which will also say the surveillance of the atomic weapons usage and exploration agreement. Although the US Army and Air Force have been conducting core experiments since 1959, a manufacturing contract
Sailing TRW only takes over 1961. In August 1963. The United States, the USSR and the United Kingdom sign a Partial Test Ban Treaty, and two months later the first pair of Vela ships flying into space. These satellites were launched with a carrier Atlas-Agena D, each had a mass of just 135 kg and were placed on the opposite side of the path between 100 and 135 thousands of miles above Earth. In this type of orbit, the highest used for defense purposes, the aircraft are lagging behind the planet's rotation, so the observer on the ground seems to travel in the opposite direction, though this is only an illusion created because the Earth is turning faster than the speed of the aircraft.
Each of the first series Vela satellites had a polyhedron form from 26 pages, of which 24 were photovoltaic cells for generating electricity. Two nickel-cadmium batteries supply the aircraft with electricity while in the earth's shadows, and maintain a constant voltage on the detectors. Orders sent from cells on the ground can also be stored for later use. The Vela series satellites carry complex and highly sensitive X- and gamma-ray detectors, and neutron-generated nuclear explosions. In the period of one year after launch, the work of the first pair exceeded all expectations and the project is considered to be the most successful in the short history of military aircraft. The first pilot model therefore counts only six planes launched with three missiles instead of the foreseen ten to five pairs.
Ben I. Funk, the US space aviation aeronautics program manager, states that good properties associated with the scientific and technical readiness to move to the next phase of the program promise to shorten the trial period, and thus to save considerable resources. "Money is in this case well spent because two other pairs are not needed launch so fast, so TRW can continue to work on the second generation of Vela Satellites that will carry more powerful carriers Titan 3C. The improvements will be related to the control and command features, the aircraft will carry better and more sensitive detectors, and the lifetime will be significantly extended.
The second pair of Vela satellites of the first generation was launched in July by 1964, and the second in July by 1965. The initial planned life span of six months has been so prolonged that the computer is on a full decade of use. Reliability with which other aircraft from that time could not be measured, and the optimistic pole of engineers who knew they could produce quality equipment for work in the universe, contributed significantly to the progress of the program. In fact, success immediately brought the award in the form of accelerated plans for the development of the second generation model that will further track events on the planet with all-over-suppressed nuclear weapons.
In April, 1967, nearly two years after the launch of the last Vela satellites of the first generation, Titan 3C successfully expelled two improved aircraft. The first-generation satellite mass from the initial 135 increased to about 151 kg; processed models are twice as massive, and have 230 to 350 kg. They were a little different shape, improved control gear, and the axes rotated once per minute. The satellites carry the usual X- and gamma-ray detection equipment, neutron emissions, electromagnetic and optical sensors, backlight counters, and improved logic circuits to distinguish between natural and artificial radiation sources. And six other sailboats were extremely good. The second and third pair was launched in May, 1969, or April 1970. At this point, the development of artificial radiation detection satellites fits with the 647 Early Warning Program, as the launch of the Stage II flies away from the stationary trajectory. So it should have been, but the satellites of this series are so well made that using them is still 1979. in the area of the South Atlantic, the perceived radiation that many experts interpreted in the nuclear tests of the South African republics. Let us recall that the second Velina generation had a predetermined life span of only one and a half years.
Extreme attempts to create an early warning system operating system under the auspices of the Assistant Defensive Program DSP
(Defense Support Program) are finally beginning to show the first results, so 647 can fit the way it is. First TRW satellite launched 6. November 1970, but a breakdown on the bracket prevents the arrival of the selected trajectory. Experts still have some time to test the operation of the sensors and other equipment. TRW made the prototype for each case by operating standards, but it turned out to be unnecessary because the next flights were in May 1971. and March 1972. proved the successful operation of the system. Control of two 647 series satellites takes over 1972. Air and Space Space Control Command (Aerospace Defense Command). One of them was placed above the Indian Ocean to observe the Soviet or Chinese attacks on ballistic intercontinental missiles, and the second one above Panama was guarded by rocket-propelled Soviet submarines, who had a story closer to the North American land. It's been a long time, but the US Air Force finally had a satellite early warning system, a replacement for BMEWS radars set up as guards on the way across the polar regions. In the water it fell so that every advantage of the Soviet fOBS ťniskih putanja ť system.
The satellites in highways above the Earth will soon notice the ignition of the rocket engines of the intercontinental missiles, giving at least half an hour to the anti-aircraft decision. But is it so? Can infrared sensors discern a rocket jet of a large fire on an oil field? This question came first on the agenda at the end of 1975, but before that you need to say a few words about the features of new satellites. Each 647 series is made up of a second 3 hull and a wide 2,7 m with a large Schmidt telescope with detectors of lead-sulphide to detect the rocket missile of the projectile as it rises. The total height of the satellite is 4,3 m, its mass is about 1000 kg, and with the photovoltaic cells on the hull it also carries four black crystals to create electricity. The Schmidt telescope, named after an Estonian ophthalmor who perfected it more than half a century ago, eliminates spherical aberration which otherwise appears on similar instruments. Unlike ordinary telescopes in which the viewing angle is only a few short minutes, Schmidt is also good for the 10 to 20 diameter range. This is how it was created for an early alarm system where 2 thousands of infrared sensors are used for Earth Surface Surveillance. Dummy 3,6 m, with an aperture of 91 cm, the telescope is inclined to 7,5 degrees from the satellite axis. As the aircraft rotates five to seven times per minute, the telescope overflows the large area below it. Each element of the infrared detector is displayed on a diameter smaller than 3 km.
The exact position of the satellite is maintained by means of two side-light-protected sensors, directed to two glossy stars at an angle of about 90 degrees. The infrared detector detects radiation at wavelengths of about 2,7 micrometers. Nuclear radiation sensors are located on two of four solar cells with photovoltaic cells. Additional radiation detectors downloaded from Vela Satellites supplement this previously mentioned type.
The real measure of the efficiency of the early alarm system is measured by the time it takes to react to the attack, and the ability to differentiate between a natural event, projectile firing, or deliberate dazzling. American satellites observe 18. October 1975, and again 17. and 18. that same year, a thousand times stronger infrared radiation than usual in the launch of ballistic intercontinental missiles. The first event was the most important because of the older model of early warning satellites, developed under the umbrella Program 949 and set in the path of September 1970. The radiation was so strong that it immediately doubted the intentional Soviet dazzling of the aircraft. In the following months, he talked a lot about the matter, he wondered about different things, but the Soviets remained at the first explanation - that it was a great oil fire. But considering intelligence sources that spoke of intense experiments with chemical hydrogen fluoride lasers, most likely, however, they were about the first earth-test tests designed to destroy defensive satellites. The Early Warning System, located over the Indian Ocean, was not permanently blocked, but the fact that dazzling air from the Earth's surface had lasted for four hours was a cause of great concern, because the Soviet Union could easily begin uncontrolled nuclear attack under such a crash . The source of the observed radiation has never been reliable, the Soviet side refused any discussion, but the event showed in each case how reliable existing defense systems are.
By breaking down every possibility of sudden FOBS attacks, early warning satellites are gaining great popularity, but at the same time they are beginning to question their vulnerability. Such a fly is a fairly easy task to find. But in the absence of another solution plans for the satellite series are continuing phases 2, so the first of them will go to June 1973. years. It was an improved 647 series launcher launched in a stationary orbit carrier Titan 3C. Other aircraft are arriving in the orbit next year, and all that time engineers are trying to improve sensor devices to keep track of the missile for a long time. Namely, that was only possible in the first few minutes of flight, and this is precisely the major lack of 647 series satellites. By tracking infrared radiation, the rocket can only be tracked while the engine is running. However, he soon disappears into space and the satellite is no longer able to observe minor changes in the path caused by the short-term use of the maneuver jets. That is why the budget of the goose head could be very inaccurate. Therefore, so-called. Maneuver monitoring will be the basis of future generations of early warning aircraft. As for the Soviets, it seemed that this type of satellite had given less attention. But 647 series aircraft have seen launching more than 3 thousands of missiles and space missiles over the past fifteen years, so it's unrealistic to expect the Soviets to have something similar.