Since the beginning of the space age, the launch of Sputnjika 4 has begun. October 1957. different rockets in the orbit were raised even around 20000 tons of earth material. Almost 1 / 4 and the mass, or around 4500 ton, are now circling around Earth in the form of a dozen or so large larger objects that can be traced to radars or telescopes. Of this, only 5% refers to more functional devices. The rest are the various debris - the space garbage. When the 150000 - 1 cm particle size 10 in 200 - 1500 km orbit, with the average speeds of 10 km / h, which are too small to be able to follow from Earth, it is clearly seen the difficulty weight. The hordes of these earth escorts are not beautifully orchestrated as small moons in the jupiter's ring, but more resembling a group of angry bees. They are moving almost randomly, in all directions and at different speeds. A collision with an object of diameter 1 cm can destroy a spacecraft. Even the small diameter diameter of only 1 mm can lead to serious damage to spacecraft, orbital satellites or satellites.

This computer generated image illustrates the population of satellites that circulate around the Earth at altitudes lower than 2000 km, referring to the state of 14. December 1990. Of course, the proportions were not respected in the picture.

Space ruins are made up of the most varied objects, such as abandoned spaceships, rejected bodies of missiles used, material remains of missed space missions, satellite remains, paint flakes, and even material released from nuclear reactors powered by certain aircraft. Believe it or not, there is also what we call ordinary garbage. So from the Russian space station Mir "flew" around the 200 of various objects, and mostly they were just about garbage bags. It seems that people or the universe can not solve the bad habit of throwing garbage into inappropriate places. Fortunately, since Mir circled at a low altitude, these objects fell to the Earth and quickly burned in the atmosphere. Year 1965. in the mission Gemini 4, astronaut Edward White walking through the universe lost his glove. This glove moving with its own orbit at a speed of 28000 km / h became probably the most subtle piece of clothing in the history of mankind. The largest abandoned facility belonged to the European Space Agency. It had the diameter of 4 with a mass of 300 kg, which was about making a few satellites a single Ariane rocket.

Since the year 1957. 120 new satellites have been launched annually. Most satellites, 129, were launched the year 1984., And the least, only 73, year 1996. Although the futurists already consider the consequences of increasing the number of artificial objects around the Earth already in the 1960 years, only at the beginning of the 80s there was a scientific discipline that dealt with the problem. True to the will, NASA is already 1966. estimated the risk of collision of spacecraft with human beings with some such object. But only the larger objects that could be traced in this or that way were taken into account in the calculations.


Larger pieces of space junk today are being watched by the same systems that used to track enemy satellites in the Cold War of the World Superstate, or timely warning of a possible missile attack. Such objects of size up to 10 cm are cataloged around 10000. Smaller objects are studied indirectly by statistical methods. Countless (often small craters) are counted on the surface of spaceships or special plates specially for this purpose exposed to the action of the space environment and then returned to Earth. There is no need to ignore the danger posed by the possible fall of various debris on the Earth, especially if it is a nuclear power plant. Once launched, the satellite remains in orbit until its speed is reduced due to the small but constant pressure of the particle current emitted by the Sun (Sun's wind) and friction with air particles in the diluted upper layers of the atmosphere. Its gravitational force attracts itself closer and closer to the Earth, or to the denser layers of the atmosphere. Fortunately, the increasing friction causes most satellites to never fall on Earth, but simply blossom.

The Sun's crown, the ghostly glimmer of the darkened sun, and the illustration of the sun's wind that covers the Earth's magnetic field.

Today, NASA's Internet site is at: http://oig1.gsfc.nasa.gov/scripts/foxweb.dll/app01? has set up a specialized search engine that allows you to find information about which satellites, satellite parts, or other similar objects will fall or will just fall to Earth in some time. The screenwriters of the cult series "Life in the North" also played with this possibility, before the year they were shown on HTV, when the boyfriend of the beautiful heroine killed the satellite on his head. Black humor was actually founded on a real event from the year 1978. When is it Cosmos 954, the Soviet satellite on nuclear power dropped Earth in the far northwest of Canada. It was near the camp where two jeans were camped, with the unlucky locals of space waste and irradiated. Fortunately, smaller doses were involved, although the dose rate near the fragments was quite high: 0.15 Gy / h (saturated). To compare the lethal radiation dose is around 6 Gy. Operating Costs "Morning light"which aimed to find the terrible remains of an evil satellite and to carry out decontamination costed the 14 million dollars of Canadian dollars at the time, but it was not particularly successful: only a 0,1% nuclear reactor was found, the remainder being permanently scattered on the surface of about 124000 km2.

The LDEF (Long Length Exposure Facility) facility was launched in orbit to experimentally determine the impact of meteorids and orbital garbage on different materials and quantify the number of collisions. The plant consisted of a number of panels of different materials, and the orbit was around the 6 years.

LDEF panels have found traces of more than 32000 crashes. The largest "crater" had a diameter of 0.5 cm. Analysis showed that approximately half the craters were caused by meteoric collisions, and the other half collided with objects of terrestrial origin.


So far, it has scheduled a total of six Soviet and three American nuclear satellites, either burning in the atmosphere or (happily) falling into the oceans or uninhabited areas. Due to the severity of the problem, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), as a specialized United Nations organization, has developed a detailed plan of action in the event of a nuclear-related fallout to assist with any future events. The density of the population of unwanted objects circulating around the Earth is, however, very low in all terrestrial standards. Therefore, most spacecraft and satellites for their functional life are still not in greater danger than collision with space scrap. But some orbits are very vulnerable. One such collision would generate even more debris, large enough to bring the other satellites in danger, which would generate their own debris, etc. Cleaning up space scrap is a great technological and economic challenge. Perhaps this was the longest she had left behind Project Orion in which debris removal is considered the possibility of using lasers stationed on Earth. These lasers, however, are not like killer weapons from scientifically-fantasy movies that earthy heroes are destroying spaceship alien ships. The principle of work is to drain some of the material from the object in the air with laser beam, which would turn it off from the course and move toward the atmosphere in which it would burn. Some other suggestions did not move further than sketches, such as placing in the perilous orbits of giant spheres of some spongy material. The particle would lose its energy in such a crash, and would fall faster toward the Earth. Undoubtedly, future generations will have to correct the mistakes caused by the short-sighted actions of their ancestors in this or that way. Today's Earth generation must prevent uncontrollable accumulations of space junk because soon there will not be enough space in the universe.